蔗糖

蔗糖是一種雙醣葡萄糖+果糖),晶體白色,具有旋光性,但無變旋。易被酸水解,水解後產生等量的D-葡萄糖和D-果糖。不具還原性。發酵形成的焦糖可以用作醬油的增色劑。蔗糖是光合作用的主要產物,廣泛分布於植物體內,特別是甜菜甘蔗水果中含量極高。蔗糖是植物儲藏、積累和運輸糖分的主要形式。蔗糖的原料主要是甘蔗Saccharum spp.)和甜菜Beta vulgaris)。將甘蔗或甜菜用機器壓碎,收集糖汁,過濾後用石灰處理,除去雜質,再用二氧化硫漂白;將經過處理的糖汁煮沸,抽去沉底的雜質,刮去浮到面上的泡沫,然後熄火待糖漿结晶成為蔗糖。

蔗糖
IUPAC名
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-二羟基-2,5-双(羟甲基)氧杂环戊-2-基]氧基-6-(羟甲基)氧杂环己-3,4,5-三醇
别名糖,Sugar;蔗糖,Saccharose;

α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside
α-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-(1→2)-β-D-呋喃果糖

β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside
β-D-呋喃果糖基-(2→1)-α-D-吡喃葡萄糖

β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside
β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-呋喃果糖基-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-吡喃葡萄糖

α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside
α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-吡喃葡萄糖基-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-呋喃果糖

dodecacarbon monodecahydrate

((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)
((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-二羟基-2,5-双(羟甲基)氧杂戊-2-基]氧基-6-(羟甲基)氧杂己-3,4,5-三醇)

识别
CAS号57-50-1  ✓
PubChem5988
ChemSpider5768
SMILES
InChI
ChEBI17992
RTECSWN6500000
DrugBankDB02772
IUPHAR配体5411
性质
化学式C12H22O11
摩尔质量342.30 g/mol g·mol⁻¹
外观white solid
密度1.587 g/cm3, solid
熔点None; decomposes at 186 °C (367 °F; 459 K)
溶解性2000 g/L (25 °C)
log P−3.76
+66.47°
结构
晶体结构Monoclinic
空间群P21
危险性
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
0
0
 
PELTWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)[1]
LD5029700 mg/kg (oral, rat)[2]
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

以蔗糖為主要成分的蔗糖(100%)、冰糖(99.9%)、白砂糖(99.5%)、绵白糖(97.9%)和赤砂糖(也稱红糖或黑糖)(89%)。[3]

其他语言
Afrikaans: Suiker
العربية: سكروز
مصرى: سوكروز
asturianu: Sacarosa
تۆرکجه: ساکاروز
беларуская: Цукроза
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Цукроза
български: Захароза
bosanski: Saharoza
català: Sacarosa
čeština: Sacharóza
Cymraeg: Swcros
dansk: Sukrose
Deutsch: Saccharose
English: Sucrose
Esperanto: Sakarozo
español: Sacarosa
eesti: Sahharoos
euskara: Sakarosa
فارسی: ساکارز
suomi: Sakkaroosi
français: Saccharose
Nordfriisk: Saccharoos
Frysk: Sacharoaze
Gaeilge: Siúcrós
galego: Sacarosa
עברית: סוכרוז
hrvatski: Saharoza
magyar: Szacharóz
հայերեն: Սախարոզ
Bahasa Indonesia: Sukrosa
ГӀалгӀай: Шекар
íslenska: Súkrósi
italiano: Saccarosio
日本語: スクロース
Basa Jawa: Sukrosa
ქართული: საქაროზა
қазақша: Сахароза
한국어: 수크로스
kurdî: Sakaroz
Кыргызча: Сахароза
Latina: Saccharosum
Lëtzebuergesch: Saccharos
lietuvių: Sacharozė
latviešu: Saharoze
македонски: Сахароза
മലയാളം: സുക്രോസ്
Bahasa Melayu: Sukrosa
Nederlands: Sacharose
norsk nynorsk: Sukrose
norsk: Rørsukker
occitan: Sacaròsa
polski: Sacharoza
português: Sacarose
română: Zaharoză
русский: Сахароза
Scots: Sucrose
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Saharoza
සිංහල: සුක්රෝස්
Simple English: Sucrose
slovenčina: Sacharóza
slovenščina: Saharoza
shqip: Sakaroza
српски / srpski: Сахароза
Basa Sunda: Sukrosa
svenska: Sackaros
తెలుగు: సుక్రోజ్
Türkçe: Sakkaroz
українська: Сахароза
اردو: شکر
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Saharoza
Tiếng Việt: Saccarose
Bân-lâm-gú: Chià-thn̂g
粵語: 蔗醣