Wolfram
English: Tungsten

Wolfram,  74W
Wolfram evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
Ki-pún sèng-chit
Miâ, hû-hōwolfram, W
Phian-miâtungsten
Gōa-hênggrayish white, lustrous
Wolfram tī chiu-kî-piáu lāi ê ūi-tì
Chúi-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Helium (hi-iú khì-thé)
Lithium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Beryllium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Phêng-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Thoàⁿ-sò͘ (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Chit-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Sng-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Hut-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Ne-óng (hi-iú khì-thé)
Natrium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Magnesium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
A-lú-mih (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Ke-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Lîn (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Liû-hông (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Iâm-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Argon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Kalium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Khā-lú-siúm (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Scandium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Titanium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Vanadium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Chromium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Manganese (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Thih (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Cobalt (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Nickel (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tâng (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
A-iân (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Gallium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Germanium (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Phi-sò͘ (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Selenium (to-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Chhàu-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Krypton (hi-iú khì-thé)
Rubidium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Strontium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Yttrium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Zirconium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Niobium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Molybdenum (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Technetium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Ruthenium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Rhodium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Palladium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Gîn (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Cadmium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Indium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Siah (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Antimony (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Tellurium (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Ak-sò͘ (siang-goân-chú hui-kim-sio̍k)
Xenon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Caesium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Barium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Lanthanum (lanthanum-hē)
Cerium (lanthanum-hē)
Praseodymium (lanthanum-hē)
Neodymium (lanthanum-hē)
Promethium (lanthanum-hē)
Samarium (lanthanum-hē)
Europium (lanthanum-hē)
Gadolinium (lanthanum-hē)
Terbium (lanthanum-hē)
Dysprosium (lanthanum-hē)
Holmium (lanthanum-hē)
Erbium (lanthanum-hē)
Thulium (lanthanum-hē)
Ytterbium (lanthanum-hē)
Lutetium (lanthanum-hē)
Hafnium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Tantalum (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Wolfram (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Rhenium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Osmium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Iridium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Pe̍h-kim (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Kim (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Chúi-gîn (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Thallium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Iân (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Bismuth (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Polonium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Astatine (lūi-kim-sio̍k)
Radon (hi-iú khì-thé)
Francium (kiⁿ-kim-sio̍k)
Radium (kiⁿ-thó͘ kim-sio̍k)
Actinium (actinium-hē)
Thorium (actinium-hē)
Protactinium (actinium-hē)
Uranium (actinium-hē)
Neptunium (actinium-hē)
Plutonium (actinium-hē)
Americium (actinium-hē)
Curium (actinium-hē)
Berkelium (actinium-hē)
Californium (actinium-hē)
Einsteinium (actinium-hē)
Fermium (actinium-hē)
Mendelevium (actinium-hē)
Nobelium (actinium-hē)
Lawrencium (actinium-hē)
Rutherfordium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Dubnium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Seaborgium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Bohrium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Hassium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Meitnerium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Darmstadtium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Roentgenium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Copernicium (kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k)
Nihonium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Flerovium (pîn-kim-sio̍k)
Moscovium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Livermorium (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Tennessine (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Oganesson (hoà-ha̍k sèng-chit iáu boē hiáu)
Mo

W

Sg
wolframrhenium
Goân-chú-hoan74
Goân-chú-liōng (±)183.84(1)[1]
Goân-sò͘ lūi-pia̍t  kòe-tō͘ kim-sio̍k
Cho̍k, hun-khu6 cho̍k, d khu
Chiu-kîtē 6 chiu-kî
Tiān-chú pâi-lia̍t[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2[2]
per shell2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Bu̍t-lí sèng-chit
Siòngkò͘-thé
Iûⁿ-tiám3695 K ​(3422 °C, ​6192 °F)
Hut-tiám6203 K ​(5930 °C, ​10,706 °F)
Bi̍t-tō͘  (sek-un)19.25 g·cm−3
17.6 g·cm−3
Lîm-kài-tiám13,892 K,  MPa
Iûⁿ-hoà-jia̍t35.3 
Cheng-hoat-jia̍t774 kJ·mol−1
Jia̍t-iông-liōng24.27 J·mol−1·K−1
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
tī T (K)347737734137457951275823
Goân-chú sèng-chit
Sng-hòa-sò͘6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −4 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Tiān-hū-tō͘Pauling scale: 2.36
Tiān-lī-lêng1st: 770 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1700 kJ·mol−1
Goân-chú pòaⁿ-kèngempirical: 139 pm
Kiōng-kè pòaⁿ-kèng162±7 pm
Cha̍p-lio̍k
Chiⁿ-thé kò͘-chō ​body-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for wolfram
Siaⁿ-sok (sòe kùn-á)4620 m·s−1 (at r.t.) (annealed)
Jia̍t-phòng-tiòng4.5 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)
Jia̍t-thoân-tō-lu̍t173 W·m−1·K−1
Tiān-chó͘-lu̍t52.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Chû-sèngparamagnetic[3]
Young hē-sò͘411 GPa
Shear hē-sò͘161 GPa
Bulk hē-sò͘310 GPa
Poisson pí0.28
Mohs ngē-tō͘7.5
Vickers ngē-tō͘3430–4600 MPa
Brinell ngē-tō͘2000–4000 MPa
CAS teng-kì pian-hō7440-33-7
Le̍k-sú
Hō-miâfrom German wolfram
Hoat-hiānCarl Wilhelm Scheele (1781)
Siōng chá hû-lîJuan José Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar (1783)
Chòe ún-tēng ê tông-ūi-sò͘
Chú bûn-chiong: wolfram ê tông-ūi-sò͘
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
180W0.12% yα2.516176Hf
181Wsyn121.2 dε0.188181Ta
182W26.50%>1.7×1020 y(α)1.772178Hf
183W14.31%>8×1019 y(α)1.680179Hf
184W30.64%>1.8×1020 y(α)1.123180Hf
185Wsyn75.1 d0.433185Re
186W28.43%>4.1×1018 y(α)1.656182Hf
()186Os
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed

Tungsten ia̍h-sī Wolfram, sī 1 ê hoà-ha̍k goân-sò͘. I ê goân-chú-hoan sī 74, hoà-ha̍k hû-hō sī W.

  • chham-khó

Chham-khó

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Berger, Dan. "Why does Tungsten not 'Kick' up an electron from the s sublevel ?". Bluffton College, USA. 
  3. Lide, D. R., pian. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th pán.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
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