Sílíkọ́nù

Sílíkọ́nù
14Si
C

Si

Ge
sílíkọ́nùphosphorus
Ìhànsójú
crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces


Spectral lines of Silicon
Àwọn ìdámọ́ wíwọ́pọ̀
Orúkọ, àmì-ìdámọ́, nọ́mbàsílíkọ́nù, Si, 14
Ìpèlóhùn /ˈsɪlɪkən/ SIL-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ SIL-ə-kon
Ẹ̀ka ẹ́límẹ̀ntimetalloid
Ẹgbẹ́, àsìkò, àdìpò14, 3, p
Ìwúwo átọ́mù28.085(1)
Ìtòléra ẹ̀lẹ́ktrónì[Ne] 3s2 3p2
2, 8, 4
Electron shells of silicon (2, 8, 4)
Ìtàn
Ìsọtẹ́lẹ̀Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
ÌwáríJöns Jacob Berzelius[1][2] (1824)
Ìyàsọ́tọ̀ àkọ́kọ́Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1824)
Named byThomas Thomson (1831)
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Density (near r.t.)2.3290 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p.2.57 g·cm−3
Melting point1687 K, 1414 °C, 2577 °F
Boiling point3538 K, 3265 °C, 5909 °F
Heat of fusion50.21
Heat of vaporization359 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity19.789 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)190821022339263630213537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1[3] -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius111 pm
Covalent radius111 pm
Van der Waals radius210 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurediamond cubic
Sílíkọ́nù has a diamond cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[4]
Electrical resistivity(20 °C) 103[5]Ω·m
Thermal conductivity149 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion(25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod)(20 °C) 8433 m·s−1
Young's modulus130-188[6] GPa
Shear modulus51-80[6] GPa
Bulk modulus97.6[6] GPa
Poisson ratio0.064 - 0.28[6]
Mohs hardness7
CAS registry number7440-21-3
Band gap energy at 300 K1.12 eV
Àwọn ísótòpù dídúró jùlọ
Main article: Àwọn ísótòpù sílíkọ́nù
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
28Si92.23%28Si is stable with 14 neutrons
29Si4.67%29Si is stable with 15 neutrons
30Si3.1%30Si is stable with 16 neutrons
32Sitrace153 y13.02032P
·

Sílíkọ́nù, a tetravalent metalloid, is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery: silicon was first prepared and characterized in pure form in 1823. In 1808, it was given the name silicium (from Látìnì: silicis, flints), with an -ium word-ending to suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-English languages. However, its final English name, first suggested in 1817, reflects the more physically similar elements carbon and boron.

Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure free element in nature. It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.[7]

Most silicon is used commercially without being separated, and indeed often with little processing of compounds from nature. These include direct industrial building-use of clays, silica sand and stone. Silica is used in ceramic brick. Silicate goes into Portland cement for mortar and stucco, and when combined with silica sand and gravel, to make concrete. Silicates are also in whiteware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional quartz-based soda-lime glass. More modern silicon compounds such as silicon carbide form abrasives and high-strength ceramics. Silicon is the basis of the ubiquitous synthetic silicon-based polymers called silicones.

Elemental silicon also has a large impact on the modern world economy. Although most free silicon is used in the steel refining, aluminum-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica), the relatively small portion of very highly purified silicon that is used in semiconductor electronics (< 10%) is perhaps even more critical. Because of wide use of silicon in integrated circuits, the basis of most computers, a great deal of modern technology depends on it.

Silicon is an essential element in biology, although only tiny traces of it appear to be required by animals,[8] however various sea sponges as well as microorganisms like diatoms need silicon in order to have structure. It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses.

  • itokasi

Itokasi

  1. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education: 1386–1412. 
  2. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. 10.1134/S1070427207120397. 
  3. Ram, R. S. et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD". J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/184.pdf. 
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Àdàkọ:RubberBible86th
  5. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 [1] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
  7. Nave, R. Abundances of the Elements in the Earth's Crust, Georgia State University
  8. Nielsen, FH (1984). "Ultratrace Elements in Nutrition". Annual Review of Nutrition 4: 21–41. 10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.000321. 6087860. 
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Silikon
Alemannisch: Silicium
አማርኛ: ሲልከን
aragonés: Silicio
العربية: سيليكون
asturianu: Siliciu
azərbaycanca: Silisium
تۆرکجه: سیلیکون
башҡортса: Кремний
беларуская: Крэмній
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Крэмн
български: Силиций
भोजपुरी: सिलिकॉन
বাংলা: সিলিকন
བོད་ཡིག: སྭི་ལི་ཀོན།
brezhoneg: Silisiom
bosanski: Silicij
буряад: Сахюур
català: Silici
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sĭk (nguòng-só)
Cebuano: Siliko
کوردی: سیلیکۆن
corsu: Siliciu
čeština: Křemík
Чӑвашла: Кремни
Cymraeg: Silicon
dansk: Silicium
Deutsch: Silicium
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސިލިކަން
Ελληνικά: Πυρίτιο
English: Silicon
Esperanto: Silicio
español: Silicio
eesti: Räni
euskara: Silizio
فارسی: سیلیسیم
français: Silicium
Nordfriisk: Siliitsium
furlan: Silici
Gaeilge: Sileacan
Gàidhlig: Sileacon
galego: Silicio
Avañe'ẽ: Kuarepotiatã
ગુજરાતી: સિલિકોન
Gaelg: Shillagon
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Si̍t
Hawaiʻi: Silikone
עברית: צורן
हिन्दी: सिलिकॉन
Fiji Hindi: Silicon
hrvatski: Silicij
Kreyòl ayisyen: Silisyòm
magyar: Szilícium
հայերեն: Սիլիցիում
interlingua: Silicium
Bahasa Indonesia: Silikon
Ido: Siliko
íslenska: Kísill
italiano: Silicio
日本語: ケイ素
Patois: Silikan
la .lojban.: cancmu
Basa Jawa: Silikon
ქართული: სილიციუმი
Kabɩyɛ: Sɩlɩsɩyɔm
Gĩkũyũ: Silicon
қазақша: Кремний
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಿಲಿಕಾನ್
한국어: 규소
kurdî: Sîlîsyûm
коми: Кремний
Кыргызча: Кремний
Latina: Silicium
Lëtzebuergesch: Silizium
Limburgs: Silicium
Ligure: Siliçio
lumbaart: Silicio
lietuvių: Silicis
latviešu: Silīcijs
Malagasy: Silisiôma
Māori: Takawai
македонски: Силициум
മലയാളം: സിലിക്കൺ
монгол: Цахиур
मराठी: सिलिकॉन
кырык мары: Кремний
Bahasa Melayu: Silikon
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆီလီကွန်
Nāhuatl: Tecpatepozteuh
Plattdüütsch: Silizium
नेपाली: सिलिकॉन
नेपाल भाषा: सिलिकन
Nederlands: Silicium
norsk nynorsk: Silisium
norsk: Silisium
occitan: Silici
Livvinkarjala: Pii
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସିଲିକନ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਿਲੀਕਾਨ
पालि: सिलिकन
polski: Krzem
Piemontèis: Silissi
پنجابی: سلیکان
português: Silício
Runa Simi: Ullayayaq
română: Siliciu
armãneashti: Siliciu
русский: Кремний
संस्कृतम्: सिलिकन
sardu: Silìciu
sicilianu: Siliciu
Scots: Seelicon
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Silicij
සිංහල: සිලිකන්
Simple English: Silicon
slovenčina: Kremík
slovenščina: Silicij
Soomaaliga: Silikoon
shqip: Silici
српски / srpski: Силицијум
Seeltersk: Silicium
Basa Sunda: Silikon
svenska: Kisel
Kiswahili: Silikoni
తెలుగు: సిలికాన్
тоҷикӣ: Силитсий
Tagalog: Silicon
Türkçe: Silisyum
татарча/tatarça: Кремний
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: سىلىتسىي
українська: Кремній
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kremniy
vepsän kel’: Ola
Tiếng Việt: Silic
Winaray: Silicon
吴语:
хальмг: Цәкүр
ייִדיש: סיליציום
中文:
文言:
Bân-lâm-gú: Ke-sò͘
粵語: