Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger2.jpg
Frederick Sanger
Doğum13 Ağustos 1918
Gloucestershire, İngiltere, Birleşik Krallık
Ölüm19 Kasım 2013 (95 yaşında)
Cambridge, İngiltere, Birleşik Krallık
Vatandaşlığı Birleşik Krallık
DalıBiyokimya
Çalıştığı yerlerUniversity of Cambridge
Laboratory of Molecular Biology
ÖğrenimUniversity of Cambridge
Doktora hocasıAlbert Neuberger
Doktora öğrencileriRodney Robert Porter
Liz Blackburn
Önemli başarılarıİnsülinin amino asit dizilimi, DNA dizi analizinde dideoksi yöntemi
Aldığı ödüllerNobel prize medal.svg Nobel Kimya Ödülü (1958)
Nobel prize medal.svg Nobel Kimya Ödülü (1980)

Frederick Sanger (d. 13 Ağustos 1918 - ö. 19 Kasım 2013) Britanyalı biyokimyager. 1958 ve 1980 yıllarında 2 kez Nobel Kimya Ödülü kazanmıştır . 1958 yılında "proteinlerin, özellikle de insülinin yapısı üzerine çalışmaları için" Nobel Kimya Ödülü kazanmıştır ve bu ödülü aynı kategoride 2 kez kazanan tek kişidir. 1980 yılında da "nükleik asitlerdeki baz dizilerinin belirlenmesiyle ilgili katkıları nedeniyle" Walter Gilbert ile birlikte bu ödülü kazanmıştır. Aynı yıl ayrıca Paul Berg, "nükleik asitlerin, özellikle de rekombinant DNA'nın biyokimyası üzerine temel çalışmaları için" Ödülü kazanan diğer isim olmuştur.[1]

Sanger iki Nobel Ödülü'ne layık görülen dört kişiden birisidir. Nobel Ödülü'nü iki kez kazanan diğer kişiler şunlardır: Marie Curie (1903'te fizik, 1911'de kimya), Linus Carl Pauling (1954'te kimya, 1962'de barış) ve John Bardeen (1956 ve 1972 fizik).[2]

Seçilmiş yayınları

  • Sanger, F.; Tuppy, H. (1951a), "The amino-acid sequence in the phenylalanyl chain of insulin. 1. The identification of lower peptides from partial hydrolysates", Biochemical Journal 49 (4): 463–481, 1197535, 14886310 .
  • Sanger, F.; Tuppy, H. (1951b), "The amino-acid sequence in the phenylalanyl chain of insulin. 2. The investigation of peptides from enzymic hydrolysates", Biochemical Journal 49 (4): 481–490, 1197536, 14886311 .
  • Sanger, F.; Thompson, E.O.P. (1953a), "The amino-acid sequence in the glycyl chain of insulin. 1. The identification of lower peptides from partial hydrolysates", Biochemical Journal 53 (3): 353–366, 1198157, 13032078 .
  • Sanger, F.; Thompson, E.O.P. (1953b), "The amino-acid sequence in the glycyl chain of insulin. 2. The investigation of peptides from enzymic hydrolysates", Biochemical Journal 53 (3): 366–374, 1198158, 13032079 .
  • Sanger, F.; Thompson, E.O.p.; Kitai, R. (1955), "The amide groups of insulin", Biochemical Journal 59 (3): 509–518, 1216278, 14363129 .
  • Ryle, A.P.; Sanger, F.; Smith, L.F.; Kitai, R. (1955), "The disulphide bonds of insulin", Biochemical Journal 60 (4): 541–556, 1216151, 13249947 .
  • Brown, H.; Sanger, F.; Kitai, R. (1955), "The structure of pig and sheep insulins", Biochemical Journal 60 (4): 556–565, 1216152, 13249948 .
  • Sanger, F. (1959), "Chemistry of Insulin: determination of the structure of insulin opens the way to greater understanding of life processes", Science 129 (3359): 1340–1344, 1959Sci...129.1340G, 10.1126/science.129.3359.1340, 13658959 .
  • Milstein, C.; Sanger, F. (1961), "An amino acid sequence in the active centre of phosphoglucomutase", Biochemical Journal 79 (3): 456–469, 1205670, 13771000 .
  • Marcker, K.; Sanger, F. (1964), "N-formyl-methionyl-S-RNA", Journal of Molecular Biology 8 (6): 835–840, 10.1016/S0022-2836(64)80164-9, 14187409 .
  • Sanger, F.; Brownlee, G.G.; Barrell, B.G. (1965), "A two-dimensional fractionation procedure for radioactive nucleotides", Journal of Molecular Biology 13 (2): 373–398, 10.1016/S0022-2836(65)80104-8, 5325727 .
  • Brownlee, G.G.; Sanger, F.; Barrell, B.G. (1967), "Nucleotide sequence of 5S-ribosomal RNA from Escherichia coli", Nature 215 (5102): 735–736, 1967Natur.215..735B, 10.1038/215735a0, 4862513 .
  • Brownlee, G.G.; Sanger, F. (1967), "Nucleotide sequences from the low molecular weight ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli", Journal of Molecular Biology 23 (3): 337–353, 10.1016/S0022-2836(67)80109-8, 4291728 .
  • Brownlee, G.G.; Sanger, F.; Barrell, B.G. (1968), "The sequence of 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid", Journal of Molecular Biology 34 (3): 379–412, 10.1016/0022-2836(68)90168-X, 4938553 .
  • Adams, J.M.; Jeppesen, P.G.; Sanger, F.; Barrell, B.G. (1969), "Nucleotide sequence from the coat protein cistron of R17 bacteriophage RNA", Nature 223 (5210): 1009–1014, 1969Natur.223.1009A, 10.1038/2231009a0, 5811898 .
  • Barrell, B.G.; Sanger, F. (1969), "The sequence of phenylalanine tRNA from E. coli", FEBS Letters 3 (4): 275–278, 10.1016/0014-5793(69)80157-2, 11947028 .
  • Jeppesen, P.G.; Barrell, B.G.; Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R. (1972), "Nucleotide sequences of two fragments from the coat-protein cistron of bacteriophage R17 ribonucleic acid", Biochemical Journal 128 (5): 993–1006, 1173988, 4566195 .
  • Sanger, F.; Donelson, J.E.; Coulson, A.R.; Kössel, H.; Fischer, D. (1973), "Use of DNA Polymerase I Primed by a Synthetic Oligonucleotide to Determine a Nucleotide Sequence in Phage f1 DNA", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 70 (4): 1209–1213, 1973PNAS...70.1209S, 10.1073/pnas.70.4.1209, 433459, 4577794 .
  • Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R. (1975), "A rapid method for determining sequences in DNA by primed synthesis with DNA polymerase", Journal of Molecular Biology 94 (3): 441–448, 10.1016/0022-2836(75)90213-2, 1100841 .
  • Sanger, F.; Nicklen, S.; Coulson, A.R. (1977), "DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 74 (12): 5463–5467, 1977PNAS...74.5463S, 10.1073/pnas.74.12.5463, 431765, 271968 . According to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database, by October 2010 this paper had been cited over 64,000 times.
  • Sanger, F.; Air, G.M.; Barrell, B.G.; Brown, N.L.; Coulson, A.R.; Fiddes, C.A.; Hutchinson, C.A.; Slocombe, P.M. ve diğ. (1977), "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage φX174 DNA", Nature 265 (5596): 687–695, 1977Natur.265..687S, 10.1038/265687a0, 870828 .
  • Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R. (1978), "The use of thin acrylamide gels for DNA sequencing", FEBS Letters 87 (1): 107–110, 10.1016/0014-5793(78)80145-8, 631324 .
  • Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Barrell, B.G.; Smith, A.J.; Roe, B.A. (1980), "Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing", Journal of Molecular Biology 143 (2): 161–178, 10.1016/0022-2836(80)90196-5, 6260957 .
  • Anderson, S.; Bankier, A.T.; Barrell, B.G.; De Bruijn, M.H.; Coulson, A.R.; Drouin, J.; Eperon, I.C.; Nierlich, D.P. ve diğ. (1981), "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome", Nature 290 (5806): 457–465, 1981Natur.290..457A, 10.1038/290457a0, 7219534 .
  • Anderson, S.; De Bruijn, M.H.; Coulson, A.R.; Eperon, I.C.; Sanger, F.; Young, I.G. (1982), "Complete sequence of bovine mitochondrial DNA. Conserved features of the mammalian mitochondrial genome", Journal of Molecular Biology 156 (4): 683–717, 10.1016/0022-2836(82)90137-1, 7120390 .
  • Sanger, F.; Coulson, A.R.; Hong, G.F.; Hill, D.F.; Petersen, G.B. (1982), "Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage λ DNA", Journal of Molecular Biology 162 (4): 729–773, 10.1016/0022-2836(82)90546-0, 6221115 .
  • Sanger, F. (1988), "Sequences, sequences, and sequences", Annual Review of Biochemistry 57: 1–28, 10.1146/annurev.bi.57.070188.000245, 2460023 .
En otros idiomas
Afrikaans: Frederick Sanger
العربية: فردريك سانغر
azərbaycanca: Frederik Senger
تۆرکجه: فردریک سنقر
беларуская: Фрэдэрык Сенгер
български: Фредерик Сангър
čeština: Frederick Sanger
français: Frederick Sanger
Gàidhlig: Frederick Sanger
Bahasa Indonesia: Frederick Sanger
Lëtzebuergesch: Frederick Sanger
Bahasa Melayu: Frederick Sanger
Plattdüütsch: Frederick Sanger
Nederlands: Frederick Sanger
português: Frederick Sanger
Runa Simi: Frederick Sanger
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Frederick Sanger
Simple English: Frederick Sanger
slovenčina: Frederick Sanger
slovenščina: Frederick Sanger
српски / srpski: Фредерик Сангер
Kiswahili: Frederick Sanger
українська: Фредерік Сенгер
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Frederick Sanger
Tiếng Việt: Frederick Sanger
Bân-lâm-gú: Frederick Sanger