pseudogene a sequence in DNA that is related to a functional gene but cannot be transcribed. This may be due to mutational changes that preclude it from being expressed in the form of functional products or the lack of some flanking control region in the promoter. Pseudogenes may or may not contain the introns of the functional gene. Examples include pseudogenes for α, β, and £ globulins in several species, V K chains of immunoglobulins, actin, and tubulin. Processed pseudogenes, or LINES (see LINE), occur in a genome somewhere other than the normal position of the corresponding functional gene and so cannot be expressed because of alterations in regulatory DNA sequences, or coding sequences, or both.