Sejarah matematika | referensi

Referensi

  1. ^ J. Friberg, "Methods and traditions of Babylonian mathematics. Plimpton 322, Pythagorean triples, and the Babylonian triangle parameter equations", Historia Mathematica, 8, 1981, pp. 277—318.
  2. ^ O. Neugebauer, "The Exact Sciences in Antiquity", Chap. IV "Egyptian Mathematics and Astronomy", 2nd ed., Dover, New York, 1969, pp. 71—96.
  3. ^ Sir Thomas L. Heath, A Manual of Greek Mathematics, Dover, 1963, p. 1: "In the case of mathematics, it is the Greek contribution which it is most essential to know, for it was the Greeks who first made mathematics a science."
  4. ^ Heath. A Manual of Greek Mathematics. hlm. 5. 
  5. ^ Robert Kaplan, "The Nothing That Is: A Natural History of Zero", Allen Lane/The Penguin Press, London, 1999
  6. ^ "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions. the importance of this invention is more readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest men of Antiquity, Archimedes and Apollonius." - Pierre Simon Laplace http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/HistTopics/Indian_numerals.html
  7. ^ A.P. Juschkewitsch, "Geschichte der Mathematik im Mittelalter", Teubner, Leipzig, 1964
  8. ^ a b (Boyer 1991, "Origins" p. 3)
  9. ^ http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LebomboBone.html
  10. ^ a b Williams, Scott W. (2005). "The Oldest Mathematical Object is in Swaziland". Mathematicians of the African Diaspora. SUNY Buffalo mathematics department. Diakses tanggal 2006-05-06. 
  11. ^ Kellermeier, John (2003). "How Menstruation Created Mathematics". Ethnomathematics. Tacoma Community College. Diakses tanggal 2006-05-06. 
  12. ^ Benda matematika kuno
  13. ^ Matematika di Afrika bagian tengah sebelum pendudukan
  14. ^ Marshack, Alexander (1991): The Roots of Civilization, Colonial Hill, Mount Kisco, NY.
  15. ^ Thom, Alexander, and Archie Thom, 1988, "The metrology and geometry of Megalithic Man", pp 132-151 in C.L.N. Ruggles, ed., Records in Stone: Papers in memory of Alexander Thom. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-33381-4.
  16. ^ (Boyer 1991, "Mesopotamia" p. 24)
  17. ^ (Boyer 1991, "Mesopotamia" p. 25)
  18. ^ Duncan J. Melville (2003). Third Millennium Chronology, Third Millennium Mathematics. Universitas St. Lawrence.
  19. ^ Aaboe, Asger (1998). Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics. New York: Random House. hlm. 30–31. 
  20. ^ (Boyer 1991, "Egypt" p. 11)
  21. ^ Pecahan Satuan Mesir di MathPages
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ (Boyer 1991, "Egypt" p. 19)
  26. ^ [4]
  27. ^ [5]
  28. ^ Howard Eves, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0-03-029558-0
  29. ^ Martin Bernal, "Animadversions on the Origins of Western Science", pp. 72–83 in Michael H. Shank, ed., The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 2000, p. 75.
  30. ^ (Boyer 1991, "Ionia and the Pythagoreans" p. 43)
  31. ^ (Boyer 1991, "Ionia and the Pythagoreans" p. 49)
  32. ^ Eves, Howard, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0-03-029558-0.
  33. ^ Howard Eves, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0-03-029558-0 p. 141: "Tiada karya, selain Alkitab, yang lebih sering dibaca...."
  34. ^ O'Connor, J.J. and Robertson, E.F. (February 1996). "A history of calculus". Universitas St Andrews. Diakses tanggal 2007-08-07. 
  35. ^ (Boyer 1991, "China and India" p. 201)
  36. ^ (Boyer 1991, "China and India" p. 196)
  37. ^ Katz 2007, hlm. 194–199
  38. ^ (Boyer 1991, "China and India" p. 198)
  39. ^ (Boyer 1991, "China and India" p. 206)
  40. ^ [6]. Nilai yang diberikan adalah 25/8 (3,125); 900/289 (3,11418685...); 1156/361 (3,202216...), dan 339/108 (3,1389), yang ditulis terakhir adalah benar (ketika dibulatkan) sampai dua tempat desimal
  41. ^ Sulbasutra India. Metode konstruksi persegi bersisi 13/15 kali diameter lingkaran yang diberikan (bersesuaian dengan π=3.00444), jadi ini bukan hampiran yang sangat baik.
  42. ^ Bronkhorst, Johannes (2001), "Panini and Euclid: Reflections on Indian Geometry", Journal of Indian Philosophy, Springer Netherlands, 29 (1-2): 43–80, 10.1023/A:1017506118885 
  43. ^ Rachel W. Hall. Matematika bagi pujangga dan penabuh drum. Math Horizons 15 (2008) 10-11.
  44. ^ http://www.westgatehouse.com/cycles.html Exegesis of Hindu Cosmological Time Cycles
  45. ^ "Āryabhaṭa: His name, time and provenance" (PDF), Indian Journal of History of Science, 36 (4): 105–115 
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