Xinjiang | description


Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red), and Southern Xinjiang/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains

Xinjiang consists of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China unified them into one political entity called Xinjiang province in 1884. At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic Tibetan Buddhist Dzungar people, while the Tarim Basin was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic speaking Muslim farmers, now known as the Uyghur people. They were governed separately until 1884. The native Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin is Altishahr.

The Qing dynasty was well aware of the differences between the former Buddhist Mongol area to the north of the Tian Shan and the Turkic Muslim area south of the Tian Shan, and ruled them in separate administrative units at first.[21] However, Qing people began to think of both areas as part of one distinct region called Xinjiang.[22] The very concept of Xinjiang as one distinct geographic identity was created by the Qing and it was originally not the native inhabitants who viewed it that way, but rather it was the Chinese who held that point of view.[23] During the Qing rule, no sense of "regional identity" was held by ordinary Xinjiang people; rather, Xinjiang's distinct identity was given to the region by the Qing, since it had distinct geography, history and culture, while at the same time it was created by the Chinese, multicultural, settled by Han and Hui, and separated from Central Asia for over a century and a half.[24]

In the late 19th century, it was still being proposed by some people that two separate parts be created out of Xinjiang, the area north of the Tianshan and the area south of the Tianshan, while it was being argued over whether to turn Xinjiang into a province.[25]

Xinjiang is a large, sparsely populated area, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (comparable in size to Iran), which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and India's Leh District to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India to the west.

The east-west chain of the Tian Shan separate Dzungaria in the north from the Tarim Basin in the south. Dzungaria is a dry steppe and the Tarim Basin contains the massive Taklamakan Desert, surrounded by oases. In the east is the Turpan Depression. In the west, the Tian Shan split, forming the Ili River valley.

Other Languages
Acèh: Xinjiang
Afrikaans: Xinjiang
አማርኛ: ሢንጅያንግ
العربية: سنجان
aragonés: Xīnjiāng
asturianu: Sinkiang
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сіньцьзян-Уйгурскі аўтаномны раён
भोजपुरी: जिनजियांग
brezhoneg: Xinjiang
català: Xinjiang
čeština: Sin-ťiang
Cymraeg: Xinjiang
dansk: Xinjiang
davvisámegiella: Nuorta-Turkestan
Deutsch: Xinjiang
dolnoserbski: Ujgurska
eesti: Xinjiang
Ελληνικά: Σιντσιάνγκ
español: Sinkiang
Esperanto: Ŝjinĝjiango
euskara: Xinjiang
føroyskt: Xinjiang
français: Xinjiang
Frysk: Sinkiang
Gaeilge: Xinjiang
Gaelg: Xinjiang
galego: Xinjiang
贛語: 新疆
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Sîn-kiông
хальмг: Шинҗән
हिन्दी: शिंजियांग
hornjoserbsce: Ujgurska
hrvatski: Xinjiang
Bahasa Indonesia: Xinjiang
interlingua: Xinjiang
íslenska: Xinjiang
italiano: Xinjiang
עברית: שינג'יאנג
Basa Jawa: Xinjiang
ქართული: სინძიანი
Ladino: Sinkiang
Latina: Xinjiang
latviešu: Siņdzjana
lietuvių: Sindziangas
Lingua Franca Nova: Xinjiang
Malagasy: Xinjiang
മലയാളം: സിൻജിയാങ്
Bahasa Melayu: Xinjiang
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Sĭng-giŏng
Nederlands: Xinjiang
norsk: Xinjiang
norsk nynorsk: Xinjiang
Novial: Xinjiang
occitan: Xinjiang
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Sinszyan-Uygʻur muxtor rayoni
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸ਼ਿਨਚਿਆਂਙ
پنجابی: شینجیانگ
polski: Sinciang
português: Xinjiang
română: Xinjiang
Runa Simi: Sinkiyan Uyq'ur
саха тыла: Синдьээҥ
Scots: Xinjiang
shqip: Sinkiang
sicilianu: Xinjiang
Simple English: Xinjiang
slovenčina: Sin-ťiang
ślůnski: Siynciyan
српски / srpski: Синкјанг
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Xinjiang
Basa Sunda: Sinjiang
suomi: Sinkiang
svenska: Xinjiang
Tagalog: Xinjiang
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Xinjiang Uyghur
اردو: سنکیانگ
vèneto: Xinjiang
Tiếng Việt: Tân Cương
Winaray: Xinjiang
粵語: 新疆