Robert E. Howard | notes

Notes

Footnotes

  1. ^ Patrick Mac Conaire was used once as the pen name for the story "Ghost in the Doorway". Steve Costigan was the name Howard used for himself in his semi-autobiography Post Oaks & Sand Roughs. Patrick Ervin was an occasional pen name, especially for the Dennis Dorgan stories. Patrick Howard was a pen name used for some of Howard's poetry. Sam Walser was a pen name used for the Wild Bill Clanton stories. Because some pulp magazines used house names, especially when reprinting older works, Howard was also credited as: Mark Adam, William Decatur, R. T. Maynard, and Max Nielson. Ghost Stories used John Taverel as the author's name for "The Apparition in the Prize Ring", to make it seem to be a true story.
  2. ^ Fans of Howard frequently refer to him by his initials, REH.[3] His friend H. P. Lovecraft gave him the nickname "Two-Gun Bob" due to his knowledge about the Old West and Texas in particular.
  3. ^ Grin (2006, pp. 13–18): Contains facsimile reproductions of Howard's birth certificate and death record.
  4. ^ Finn (2006, p. 26) notes that the birth record incorrectly shows Howard's birthdate as January 24, in addition to altering his mother's age.
  5. ^ Burke (3rd paragraph): notes that Howard celebrated his birthday on the 22nd rather than the 24th, as recorded in Parker County records. His father also gave his birthday as January 22.
  6. ^ Joshi & Dziemianowicz (2005, p. 1095): "Critical consensus, however, unfailingly places the birth of sword-and-sorcery with the publication of 'The Shadow Kingdom' (August 1929), in which Howard introduced the brooding figure of King Kull, ruling over the fading land of Valusia in a Pre-Cataclysmic Age when Atlantis is but newly risen from the waves."
  7. ^ Gramlich & Westfahl (2005, p. 780): "The term 'sword and sorcery' was coined by Fritz Leiber but the genre was pioneered by Robert E. Howard, a Texas pulp writer who combined fantasy, history, horror, and the Gothic to create the Hyborian Age and such characters as Conan the Conqueror and Kull."
  8. ^ Herron (2004, pp. 161–162): "Suddenly one Golden Age in literature had drawn to a close...For just over a decade these three [REH, CAS, and HPL] had created a phenomenal array of new imaginative fiction and poetry...In these same years another Golden Age played out in the detective pulp The Black Mask...In England, C. S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and others called their group centered in Oxford University The Inklings...the Bloomsbury Group, which flourished from 1904 until World War II, form yet another. So do the American poets and novelists who became known as The Beats..."
  9. ^ Tompkins (2005, p. 38): "True, the era during which drugstore racks were a Muscle Beach of Kandars, Kothars, Thongors, Wandors, Odans, and Orons is long gone, but is S&S in trouble?" Tompkins then presents a series of quotes from modern fantasy writers who claim a strong Howardian influence.
  10. ^ Clute & Grant (1999, pp. 39 & 483): "The combined success of Howard's Conan books and J.R.R. Tolkien's LotR in paperback had resulted in unprecedented interest in heroic and high fantasy."; "[Howard] remains of central interest in the field of fantasy for his sword and sorcery; the templates he established for that mode have remained influential for most of the 20th century."

Citations

  1. ^ Lord (1976, pp. 107, 131–169)
  2. ^ Finn (2006, p. 96)
  3. ^ Burke (¶ 1)
  4. ^ a b c Lord (1976, p. 71)
  5. ^ Finn (2006, p. 26)
  6. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 30–41)
  7. ^ a b Burke (¶ 5)
  8. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 39–40)
  9. ^ Finn (2006, p. 42)
  10. ^ a b c Burke (¶ 7)
  11. ^ Finn (2006, p. 34)
  12. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 41–42)
  13. ^ a b Burke (¶ 11)
  14. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 12, 49–50)
  15. ^ Finn (2006, p. 35)
  16. ^ Burke (¶ 8)
  17. ^ Lord (1976, pp. 75–76)
  18. ^ Finn (2006, p. 50)
  19. ^ a b c d e Lord (1976, p. 72)
  20. ^ a b c d Burke (¶ 9)
  21. ^ a b Finn (2006, p. 41)
  22. ^ Eng (2000, p. 24)
  23. ^ Finn (2006, p. 43)
  24. ^ Finn (2006, p. 46)
  25. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 87, 92)
  26. ^ a b Burke (¶ 19)
  27. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 47–49)
  28. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 16–17)
  29. ^ Finn (2006, p. 12)
  30. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 50–51)
  31. ^ a b Louinet (2003, pp. 347–348)
  32. ^ Burke (¶ 18–20)
  33. ^ Finn (2006, p. 51)
  34. ^ de Camp, de Camp & Griffin (1983)
  35. ^ Finn (2006, p. 32)
  36. ^ Lord (1976, pp. 71–72)
  37. ^ Finn (2006, p. 73)
  38. ^ a b Burke (¶ 10)
  39. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 75–76)
  40. ^ Lord (1976, pp. 71–72, 77–78)
  41. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 128–129)
  42. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 219)
  43. ^ a b Finn (2006, pp. 87–88)
  44. ^ Finn (2006, p. 91)
  45. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 91–101, 117–119)
  46. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 93–94)
  47. ^ a b c d Burke (¶ 13)
  48. ^ Lord (1976, p. 74)
  49. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 96–98)
  50. ^ a b c d e Lord (1976, p. 75)
  51. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 104–105)
  52. ^ Finn (2006, p. 98)
  53. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 99–101)
  54. ^ a b Burke (¶ 27)
  55. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 103–104)
  56. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 105–108)
  57. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 113–115)
  58. ^ Burke (¶ 22)
  59. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 113)
  60. ^ Burke (¶ 24)
  61. ^ Finn (2006, p. 114)
  62. ^ Burke (¶ 15th & 20)
  63. ^ Burke (¶ 21)
  64. ^ Finn (2006, p. 113)
  65. ^ a b Burke (¶ 25)
  66. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 132–135)
  67. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 138–139)
  68. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 135–136)
  69. ^ a b c d e Lord (1976, p. 76)
  70. ^ Finn (2006, p. 139)
  71. ^ Finn (2006, p. 120)
  72. ^ Burke (¶ 15)
  73. ^ Burke (¶ 28–30th paragraphs)
  74. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 145–148)
  75. ^ Burke (¶ 31)
  76. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 148–149)
  77. ^ a b Burke (¶ 32)
  78. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 150–151)
  79. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 150–151, 156–157)
  80. ^ Burke (¶ 35)
  81. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 151–152)
  82. ^ a b Finn (2006, p. 159)
  83. ^ Lord (1976, pp. 76–77)
  84. ^ Finn (2006, p. 160)
  85. ^ a b c Louinet (2003, p. 347)
  86. ^ Louinet (2005, p. 379)
  87. ^ a b Louinet (2002, p. 430)
  88. ^ Burke (¶ 38)
  89. ^ Finn (2006, p. 166)
  90. ^ Burke (¶ 37–38)
  91. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 429–430)
  92. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 434–435)
  93. ^ Burke (¶ 28)
  94. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 166–170)
  95. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 436–441)
  96. ^ a b Burke (¶ 39)
  97. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 167–168)
  98. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 439–440)
  99. ^ a b c Finn (2006, p. 170)
  100. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 440–441)
  101. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 169–170)
  102. ^ a b Finn (2006, pp. 170–173)
  103. ^ a b Louinet (2002, p. 451)
  104. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 448–449)
  105. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 443)
  106. ^ Louinet (2003, p. 350)
  107. ^ Louinet (2002, pp. 452)
  108. ^ a b Louinet (2003, p. 351)
  109. ^ Louinet (2003, p. 357)
  110. ^ Louinet (2003, pp. 352–356)
  111. ^ Louinet (2003, pp. 350–351, 357)
  112. ^ Louinet (2005, p. 376)
  113. ^ Louinet (2005, p. 371)
  114. ^ Louinet (2005, pp. 371–372)
  115. ^ Louinet (2005, pp. 374–376)
  116. ^ Louinet (2005, p. 378)
  117. ^ Louinet (2005, pp. 380–385)
  118. ^ a b c Lord (1976, p. 77)
  119. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 161–162, 207)
  120. ^ a b Finn (2006, p. 192)
  121. ^ a b Burke (¶ 41)
  122. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 201–203)
  123. ^ Burke (¶ 18)
  124. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 171–175, 197–201)
  125. ^ a b c Lord (1976, p. 79)
  126. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 204–208)
  127. ^ Finn (2006, p. 208)
  128. ^ Finn (2006, p. 210)
  129. ^ a b Finn (2006, p. 191)
  130. ^ a b Louinet (2005, p. 381)
  131. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 181–183)
  132. ^ a b c Burke (¶ 42)
  133. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 183–185)
  134. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 188)
  135. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 188–191)
  136. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 192–194)
  137. ^ Finn (2006, p. 183)
  138. ^ Lord (1976, p. 78)
  139. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 207–210)
  140. ^ Burke (¶ 45)
  141. ^ Louinet (2005, p. 385)
  142. ^ a b Finn (2006, p. 217)
  143. ^ Finn (2006, p. 213)
  144. ^ a b Finn (2006, p. 215)
  145. ^ Burke (¶ 46–52)
  146. ^ a b c Finn (2006, p. 214)
  147. ^ a b Burke (¶ 54)
  148. ^ Burke (¶ 53–54)
  149. ^ Robert E. Ervin Howard at Find a Grave
  150. ^ Burke (¶ 55–56)
  151. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 239–240)
  152. ^ Finn (2006, p. 221)
  153. ^ Gramlich (2006, pp. 99, 106)
  154. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 80–85)
  155. ^ a b Romeo
  156. ^ Finn (2006, p. 84)
  157. ^ Howard, Robert (2005). Wings in the Night. Wildside Press, LLC. p. 240. ISBN 0809511347.
  158. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 81–82)
  159. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 80–81)
  160. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 84–85)
  161. ^ Finn (2006, p. 141)
  162. ^ Burke (¶ 44)
  163. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 186–187)
  164. ^ Burke (¶ 43–44)
  165. ^ Burke (¶ 49–50)
  166. ^ Finn (2006, p. 225)
  167. ^ Finn (2006, p. 179)
  168. ^ Price (1945, p. 40)
  169. ^ Finn (2006, p. 57)
  170. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 57–58)
  171. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 63 & 71)
  172. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 44–45)
  173. ^ Burke (¶ 34)
  174. ^ Eng (2000, p. 25)
  175. ^ Finn (2006, p. 66)
  176. ^ Finn (2006, p. 65)
  177. ^ Finn (2006, p. 69)
  178. ^ Finn (2006, p. 173)
  179. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 49–50)
  180. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 78–79)
  181. ^ Burke (1998, § F)
  182. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 12, 49–50, 181)
  183. ^ Burke (¶ 6)
  184. ^ Finn (2006, pp. 51–52)
  185. ^ Finn (2006, p. 156)
  186. ^ Louinet (2002, p. 436)
  187. ^ Shanks (2011, pp. 53–90)
  188. ^ Finn (2006, p. 234)
  189. ^ a b c Roehm (2007, p. 5)
  190. ^ a b Finn (2006, pp. 233–234)
  191. ^ a b King (2010, p. 204)
  192. ^ Moorcock (2006, p. 9)
  193. ^ Moorcock (2006, pp. 9–10)
  194. ^ Roehm (2007, p. 6)
  195. ^ Roehm (2007, pp. 5–7)
  196. ^ Joshi (1996, p. 502)
  197. ^ Gramlich (2006, p. 99)
  198. ^ Finn (2006, p. 229)
  199. ^ Lord (1976, pp. 75–79)
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