Paper mill | notes


  1. ^ a b Burns 1996, pp. 414−417
  2. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin 1985, pp. 68−73
  3. ^ Lucas 2005, p. 28, fn. 70
  4. ^ a b Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:

    It has also become universal to talk of paper "mills" (even of 400 such mills at Fez!), relating these to the hydraulic wonders of Islamic society in the east and west. All our evidence points to non-hydraulic hand production, however, at springs away from rivers which it could pollute.

  5. ^ Thompson 1978, p. 169:

    European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power. Jean Gimpel, in The Medieval Machine (the English translation of La Revolution Industrielle du Moyen Age), points out that the Chinese and Arabs used only human and animal force. Gimpel goes on to say : "This is convincing evidence of how technologically minded the Europeans of that era were. Paper had traveled nearly halfway around the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture."'

  6. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:

    Indeed, Muslim authors in general call any "paper manufactory" a wiraqah - not a "mill" (tahun)

  7. ^ Burns 1996, p. 414:

    Al-Hassan and Hill also use as evidence the statement by Robert Forbes in his multivolume Studies in Ancient Technology that "in the tenth century [AD] floating mills were found on the Tigris near Baghdad." Though such captive mills were known to the Romans and were used in 12th-century France, Forbes offers no citation or evidence for this unlikely application to very early papermaking. The most erudite authority on the topography of medieval Baghdad, George Makdisi, writes me that he has no recollection of such floating papermills or any papermills, which "I think I would have remembered."

  8. ^ a b Tschudin 1996, p. 423
  9. ^ a b Burns 1996, pp. 414f.
  10. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A history of engineering in classical and medieval times, Routledge, pp. 169–71, ISBN 0-415-15291-7
  11. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414:

    Donald Hill has found a reference in al-Biruni in the 11th century to stones "fixed to axles across running water, as in Samarkand with the pounding of flax for paper," a possible exception to the rule. Hill finds the notice "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that this was a water-powered triphammer.

  12. ^ Leor Halevi (2008), "Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper", Speculum, Cambridge University Press, 83: 917–945 [917–8], 10.1017/S0038713400017073
  13. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A history of engineering in classical and medieval times, Routledge, p. 171, ISBN 0-415-15291-7
  14. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:

    Thomas Glick warily concludes that "it is assumed but not proved" that Islamic Xàtiva had hydraulic papermills, noting that the pertinent Arabic description was "a press." Since the "oldest" Catalan paper is physically the same as Islamic Xàtiva's, he notes, their techniques "can be presumed to have been identical" - reasonable enough for Catalan paper before 1280. My recent conversations with Glick indicate that he now inclines to non-hydraulic Andalusi papermaking.

  15. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 415:

    Currently Oriol Valls i Subin't, director of the History of Paper department of the Museos Municipales de Historia in the Instituto Municipal de Historia at Barcelona, has popularized a version of that thesis, in which Christian paper mills multiplied marvelously along the Catalan rivers "from Tarragona to the Pyrenees" from 1113 to 1244. His many articles and two books, valuable for such topics as fiber analysis in medieval paper, continue to spread this untenable and indeed bizarre thesis. As Josep Madurell i Marimon shows in detail, these were all in fact cloth fulling mills; textiles were then the basic mechanized industry of the Christian west.

  16. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 416:

    Fabriano's claim rests on two charters - a gift of August 1276, and a sale of November 1278, to the new Benedictine congregation of Silvestrine monks at Montefano. In each, a woman recluse-hermit gives to the monastery her enclosure or "prison" - Latin carcer; misread by Fabriano partisans as a form of Italian cartiera or paper mill! There is no papermaking in these documents, much less hydraulic mills.

  17. ^ a b c Burns 1996, pp. 417f.
  18. ^ Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 385.
  19. ^ Stromer 1960
  20. ^ Stromer 1993, p. 1
  21. ^ Dard Hunter (1943), Papermaking, the History and Technology of an Ancient Craft, Knopf
  22. ^ History of the lumber industry of America. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  23. ^ "About Berlin: Berlin History". Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  24. ^ "Monday, July 9, 1934". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 1934. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  25. ^ "Paper Mill Closures of America". Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  26. ^ "Urban Decay". Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  27. ^ "Metso supplied SC paper machine line sets a new world speed record at Stora Enso Kvarnsveden". Retrieved 2008-04-12.
Other Languages
čeština: Papírna
Deutsch: Papiermühle
français: Papeterie
한국어: 제지소
עברית: טחנת נייר
Limburgs: Papiermäöle
magyar: Papírmalom
Nederlands: Papiermolen
Simple English: Paper mill
吴语: 造纸厂
中文: 造纸厂