Maize | genetics

Genetics

Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains

Maize is an annual grass in the family Gramineae, which includes such plants as wheat, rye, barley, rice, sorghum, and sugarcane. There are two major species of the Zea genus: Zea mays (maize) and Zea diploperennis, which is a perennial type of teosinte. The annual teosinte variety called Zea mays mexicana is the closest botanical relative to maize. It still grows in the wild as an annual in Mexico and Guatemala.[50]

Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each has:

  • Flour corn: Zea mays var. amylacea
  • Popcorn: Zea mays var. everta
  • Dent corn : Zea mays var. indentata
  • Flint corn: Zea mays var. indurata
  • Sweet corn: Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa
  • Waxy corn: Zea mays var. ceratina
  • Amylomaize: Zea mays
  • Pod corn: Zea mays var. tunicata Larrañaga ex A. St. Hil.
  • Striped maize: Zea mays var. japonica

This system has been replaced (though not entirely displaced) over the last 60 years by multivariable classifications based on ever more data. Agronomic data were supplemented by botanical traits for a robust initial classification, then genetic, cytological, protein and DNA evidence was added. Now, the categories are forms (little used), races, racial complexes, and recently branches.

Maize is a diploid with 20 chromosomes (n=10). The combined length of the chromosomes is 1500 cM. Some of the maize chromosomes have what are known as "chromosomal knobs": highly repetitive heterochromatic domains that stain darkly. Individual knobs are polymorphic among strains of both maize and teosinte.

Barbara McClintock used these knob markers to validate her transposon theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Maize is still an important model organism for genetics and developmental biology today.[51]

The Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center, funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and located in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is a stock center of maize mutants. The total collection has nearly 80,000 samples. The bulk of the collection consists of several hundred named genes, plus additional gene combinations and other heritable variants. There are about 1000 chromosomal aberrations (e.g., translocations and inversions) and stocks with abnormal chromosome numbers (e.g., MaizeGDB, the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.[52]

In 2005, the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) formed a consortium to sequence the B73 maize genome. The resulting DNA sequence data was deposited immediately into GenBank, a public repository for genome-sequence data. Sequences and genome annotations have also been made available throughout the project's lifetime at the project's official site.[53]

Primary sequencing of the maize genome was completed in 2008.[54] On November 20, 2009, the consortium published results of its sequencing effort in Science.[55] The genome, 85% of which is composed of transposons, was found to contain 32,540 genes (By comparison, the human genome contains about 2.9 billion bases and 26,000 genes). Much of the maize genome has been duplicated and reshuffled by helitrons—group of rolling circle transposons.[56]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Нартыху
Afrikaans: Mielie
Alemannisch: Mais
አማርኛ: በቆሎ
العربية: ذرة (نبات)
aragonés: Zea mays
armãneashti: Câlâmbuchiu
asturianu: Zea mays
Avañe'ẽ: Avati
Aymar aru: Tunqu
azərbaycanca: Qarğıdalı (bitki)
bamanankan: Kaba
বাংলা: ভুট্টা
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoan-be̍h
Basa Banyumasan: Jagung
башҡортса: Шәкәр кукурузы
беларуская: Кукуруза
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кукуруза
Bikol Central: Mais
Bislama: Corn
български: Царевица
Boarisch: Gugaruz
བོད་ཡིག: ཨ་ཤོམ།
bosanski: Kukuruz
brezhoneg: Maiz
буряад: Кукуруза
català: Dacsa
Чӑвашла: Чакан тулă
Cebuano: Zea mays
čeština: Kukuřice setá
chiShona: Chibage
chiTumbuka: Chingoma
Cymraeg: Indrawn
dansk: Majs
Deitsch: Welschkann
Deutsch: Mais
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޒުވާރި
Diné bizaad: Naadą́ą́ʼ
dolnoserbski: Majs
eesti: Mais
Ελληνικά: Καλαμπόκι
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Furmintòun
español: Zea mays
Esperanto: Maizo
estremeñu: Zea mays
euskara: Arto
فارسی: ذرت
føroyskt: Mais
français: Maïs
Fulfulde: Masarji
furlan: Blave
galego: Millo
贛語: 粟米
ગુજરાતી: મકાઈ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Pâu-siuk
한국어: 옥수수
Hausa: Masara
հայերեն: Եգիպտացորեն
हिन्दी: मक्का (अनाज)
hornjoserbsce: Prawa kukurica
hrvatski: Kukuruz
Ido: Maizo
Ilokano: Mais
Bahasa Indonesia: Jagung
interlingua: Zea mays
Ирон: Нартхор
íslenska: Maís
italiano: Zea mays
עברית: תירס
Basa Jawa: Jagung
Kapampangan: Mais
къарачай-малкъар: Нартюх
ქართული: სიმინდი
қазақша: Жүгері
Kinyarwanda: Ikigori
Kiswahili: Muhindi
Kongo: Disângu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mayi
kurdî: Garis
Кыргызча: Жүгөрү
Ladino: Mais
Latina: Zea mays
latviešu: Kukurūza
Lëtzebuergesch: Mais
Ligure: Granon
Limburgs: Meis
lingála: Lisángú
la .lojban.: zumri
lumbaart: Zea mays
मैथिली: मकै
македонски: Пченка
മലയാളം: ചോളം
मराठी: मका
მარგალური: ლაიტი
مصرى: دره
مازِرونی: کوگندم
Bahasa Melayu: Jagung
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iù-diĕng-báu
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပြောင်းဖူး
Nāhuatl: Cintli
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Sila
Nederlands: Mais
नेपाली: मकै
नेपाल भाषा: कःनि
Napulitano: Granone
нохчийн: ХьаьжкӀа
Nordfriisk: Meis (slach)
norsk: Mais
norsk nynorsk: Mais
occitan: Milh
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମକା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Makkajoʻxori
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੱਕੀ
پنجابی: مکی
پښتو: جوار
Patois: Kaan
Piemontèis: Melia
Ποντιακά: Λαζούδ
português: Milho
română: Porumb
Runa Simi: Sara
русский: Кукуруза
саха тыла: Кукурууза
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲᱟ
Scots: Maize
Seeltersk: Turske Weete
Setswana: Mmidi/Mmopo
shqip: Misri
sicilianu: Zea mays
සිංහල: බඩ ඉරිඟු
Simple English: Maize
سنڌي: مڪئي
slovenčina: Kukurica siata
slovenščina: Koruza
Soomaaliga: Galley
کوردی: گەنمەشامی
српски / srpski: Кукуруз
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kukuruz
Basa Sunda: Jagong
suomi: Maissi
svenska: Majs
Tagalog: Mais
татарча/tatarça: Кукуруз
తెలుగు: మొక్కజొన్న
lea faka-Tonga: Koane
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏎᎷ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Ová'kemâhaemenôtse
Türkçe: Mısır (bitki)
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Anyuɔl
українська: Кукурудза
اردو: مکئی
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كۆممىقوناق
Vahcuengh: Haeuxyangz
vèneto: Zea mays
vepsän kel’: Kukuruz
Tiếng Việt: Ngô
Volapük: Mait
Võro: Mais
Winaray: Maís
吴语: 玉米
ייִדיש: קוקורוזע
Yorùbá: Àgbàdo
粵語: 粟米
Zazaki: Lazut
中文: 玉米
Bahasa Hulontalo: Binte
ГӀалгӀай: ХьажкӀа
Kabɩyɛ: Saamɩɖɛ
Lingua Franca Nova: Mais