Indonesian language | classification and related languages

Classification and related languages

Indonesian has its roots in Malay. Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast.[21] A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages. Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.[22] Indonesian, which originated from Malay, is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean; the Philippines national language, Filipino; and the native language of New Zealander, Māori language are also members of this language family. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

Numbers in Austronesian languages
Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAN, c. 4000 BCE *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq
Amis cecay tusa tulu sepat lima enem pitu falu siwa pulu'
Rukai itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku
Tsou coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ
Tagalog isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu
Ilocano maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo
Cebuano usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu
Chamorro maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu
Malagasy iray roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
Malay/Indonesian satu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh lapan/delapan sembilan sepuluh
Minangkabau ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah
Javanese siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh
Tetun ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu
Fijian dua rua tolu lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini
Kiribati teuana uoua teniua aua nimaua onoua itiua waniua ruaiua tebuina
Tongan taha ua tolu nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu
Sāmoan tasi lua tolu lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu
Māori tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru)
Tahitian hō'ē piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva 'ahuru
Marquesan tahi 'ua to'u 'ima ono hitu va'u iva 'ahu'u
Leeward Islands (Society Islands) language tahi rua toru rima ono fitu varu iva 'ahuru
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi

However, Indonesian as it is known today was heavily influenced by several languages due to historical ties with other nations. Dutch made the highest contribution to the language, especially in vocabulary due to the Dutch's colonization for over three centuries, from the 16th century until the mid-20th century.[23][24] Asian languages also influenced the language, with Chinese influencing Indonesian during the 15th and 16th centuries due to the spice trade, Sanskrit and Hindi contributing during the flourishing of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms from the 2nd to the 14th century, followed by Arabic after the spread of Islam in the archipelago in the 13th century.[25] Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. Indonesian also receives many of English words as results of globalization and modernization, especially since the 1990s, as far as the Internet's emergence and development until now.[26] Some Indonesian words have also been borrowed into English, among them the common words orangutan, gong, bamboo, rattan, sarong, and the less common words such as paddy, sago and kapok. The phrase "to run amock" comes from the Indonesian verb amuk (to run out of control, to rage).[27][28] Due to the complexity of historical background of the language, Indonesian has become more advanced, even when compared to its own ancestor, Malay.[29]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Indonesies
አማርኛ: ኢንዶኔዥኛ
aragonés: Idioma indonesio
asturianu: Idioma indonesiu
azərbaycanca: İndoneziya dili
Bahasa Banjar: Bahasa Indonésia
Bân-lâm-gú: Ìn-nî-gí
Basa Banyumasan: Basa Indonesia
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Інданэзійская мова
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Indones
brezhoneg: Indonezeg
català: Indonesi
Cebuano: Inindonesyo
čeština: Indonéština
Cymraeg: Indoneseg
Esperanto: Indonezia lingvo
euskara: Indonesiera
Fiji Hindi: Indonesian bhasa
français: Indonésien
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Yin-nì-ngî
Հայերեն: Ինդոնեզերեն
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Indonesia
interlingua: Lingua indonesian
isiZulu: Isi-Indonesia
íslenska: Indónesíska
עברית: אינדונזית
Basa Jawa: Basa Indonésia
kalaallisut: Indonesiamiutut
kernowek: Indonesek
Kiswahili: Kiindonesia
македонски: Индонезиски јазик
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Indonesia
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Indonesia
Nederlands: Indonesisch
norsk: Indonesisk
norsk nynorsk: Indonesisk
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Indonez tili
پنجابی: انڈونیشی
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាឥណ្ឌូនេស៊ី
Piemontèis: Lenga Indonesian
português: Língua indonésia
Runa Simi: Indunisya simi
саха тыла: Индонезия тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aInitonesia
Simple English: Indonesian language
slovenčina: Indonézština
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Indonežanski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Indonésia
svenska: Indonesiska
татарча/tatarça: Индонезия теле
Türkçe: Endonezce
Türkmençe: Indoneziýa dilleri
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھىندونېزىيە تىلى
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Indonesia
Winaray: Indonesyo
粵語: 印尼文
Zazaki: İndonezki
中文: 印尼语