In Hellenistic imagery, Hera's chariot was pulled by peacocks, birds not known to Greeks before the conquests of Alexander. Alexander's tutor, Aristotle, refers to it as "the Persian bird." The peacock motif was revived in the Renaissance iconography that unified Hera and Juno, and which European painters focused on. A bird that had been associated with Hera on an archaic level, where most of the Aegean goddesses were associated with "their" bird, was the cuckoo, which appears in mythic fragments concerning the first wooing of a virginal Hera by Zeus.
Her archaic association was primarily with cattle, as a Cow Goddess, who was especially venerated in "cattle-rich" Euboea. On Cyprus, very early archaeological sites contain bull skulls that have been adapted for use as masks (see Bull (mythology)). Her familiar Homeric epithet Boôpis, is always translated "cow-eyed". In this respect, Hera bears some resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian deity Hathor, a maternal goddess associated with cattle.
Hera bore several epithets in the mythological tradition, including:
- Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros) 'Protector of Men' (Alexandros) (among the Sicyonians)
- Αἰγοφάγος (Aigophágos) 'Goat-Eater' (among the Lacedaemonians)
- Ἀκραῖα (Akráia) '(She) of the Heights'
- Ἀμμωνία (Ammonia)
- Ἀργεία (Argéia) '(She) of Argos'
- Βασίλεια (Basíleia) 'Queen'
- Βουναία (Bounáia) '(She) of the Mound' (in Corinth)
- Βοῶπις (Boṓpis) 'Cow-Eyed' or 'Cow-Faced'
- Λευκώλενος (Leukṓlenos) 'White-Armed'
- Παῖς (Pais) 'Child' (in her role as virgin)
- Παρθένος (Parthénos) 'Virgin'
- Τελεία (Teléia) (as goddess of marriage)
- Χήρη (Chḗrē) 'Widowed'