Giza pyramid complex | cemeteries


Giza pyramid complex (map)
Giza pyramid complex seen from above
3D overview of the Giza complex

As the pyramids were constructed, the mastabas for lesser royals were constructed around them. Near the pyramid of Khufu, the main cemetery is G 7000 which lies in the East Field located to the east of the main pyramid and next to the Queen's pyramids. These cemeteries around the pyramids were arranged along streets and avenues.[15] Cemetery G 7000 was one of the earliest and contained tombs of wives, sons and daughters of these 4th dynasty rulers. On the other side of the pyramid in the West Field, the royals sons Wepemnofret and Hemiunu were buried in Cemetery G 1200 and Cemetery G 4000 respectively. These cemeteries were further expanded during the 5th and 6th dynasty.[6]

West Field

The West Field is located to the west of Khufu’s pyramid. It is divided into smaller areas such as the cemeteries referred to as the Abu Bakr Excavations (1949–50, 1950–1,1952 and 1953), and several cemeteries named based on the mastaba numbers such as Cemetery G 1000, Cemetery G 1100, etc. The West Field contains Cemetery G1000 – Cemetery G1600, and Cemetery G 1900. Further cemeteries in this field are: Cemeteries G 2000, G 2200, G 2500, G 3000, G 4000, and G 6000. Three other cemeteries are named after their excavators: Junker Cemetery West, Junker Cemetery East and Steindorff Cemetery.[6]:100–122

Cemeteries in the West Field at Giza[6]:47–179
Cemetery Time Period Excavation Comments
Abu Bakr Excavations the 5th and 6th dynasty (1949–53)
Cemetery G 1000 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Stone built mastabas
Cemetery G 1100 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Brick built mastabas
Cemetery G 1200 Mainly 4th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Some members of Khufu’s family are buried here; Wepemnefert (King's Son), Kaem-ah (King's Son), Nefertiabet (King's Daughter)
Cemetery G 1300 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1903–05) Brick built mastabas
Cemetery G 1400 the 5th dynasty or later Reisner (1903–05) Two men who were prophets of Khufu
Cemetery G 1500 Reisner (1931?) Only one mastaba (G 1601)
Cemetery G 1600 the 5th dynasty or later Reisner (1931) Two men who were prophets of Khufu
Cemetery G 1900 Reisner (1931) Only one mastabas (G 1903)
Cemetery G 2000 the 5th and 6th dynasty Reisner (1905–06)
Cemetery G 2100 the 4th and 5th dynasty and later Reisner (1931) G 2100 belongs to Merib, a King's (grand-)Son and G2101 belongs to a 5th dynasty king's daughter.
Cemetery G 2200 Late 4th or early 5th dynasty Reisner ? Mastaba G 2220
Cemetery G 2300 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty Reisner (1911–13) Includes mastabas of Vizier Senedjemib-Inti and his family.
Cemetery G 2400 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty Reisner (1911–13)
Cemetery G 2500 Reisner
Cemetery G 3000 6th dynasty Fisher and Eckley Case Jr (1915)
Cemetery G 4000 4th dynasty and later Junker and Reisner (1931) Includes tomb of the Vizier Hemiunu
Cemetery G 6000 5th dynasty Reisner (1925–26)
Junker Cemetery (West) Late Old Kingdom Junker (1926–27) Includes mastaba of the dwarf Seneb
Steindorff Cemetery 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty Steindorff (1903–07)
Junker Cemetery (East) Late Old Kingdom Junker

East Field

The East Field is located to the east of Khufu's pyramid and contains cemetery G 7000. This cemetery was a burial place for some of the family members of Khufu. The cemetery also includes mastabas from tenants and priests of the pyramids dated to the 5th dynasty and 6th dynasty.[6]:179–216

Cemeteries G 7000 – Royalty[6]:179–208
Tomb number Owner Comments
G 7000 X Queen Hetepheres I Mother of Khufu
G 7010 Nefertkau I Daughter of Sneferu, half-sister of Khufu
G 7060 Nefermaat I Son of Nefertkau I and Vizier of Khafra
G 7070 Sneferukhaf Son of Nefermaat II
G 7110–7120 Kawab and Hetepheres II Kawab was the eldest son of Khufu
G 7130–7140 Khufukhaf I and Nefertkau II King's Son and Vizier and his wife
G 7210–7220 Djedefhor King's Son of Khufu and Meritites
G 7350 Hetepheres II Wife of Kawab and later wife of Djedefre
G 7410–7420 Meresankh II and Horbaef Meresankh was a king's daughter and king's wife
G 7430–7440 Minkhaf I Son of Khufu and Vizier of Khafra
G 7510 Ankhhaf Son of Sneferu and Vizier of Khafra
G 7530–7540 Meresankh III Daughter of Kawab and Hetepheres II, wife of Khafra
G 7550 Duaenhor Probably son of Kawab and thus a grandson of Khufu
G 7560 Akhethotep and Meritites II Meritites is a daughter of Khufu
G 7660 Kaemsekhem Son of Kawab, a grandson of Khufu, served as Director of the Palace
G 7760 Mindjedef Son of Kawab, a grandson of Khufu, served as Treasurer
G 7810 Djaty Son of Queen Meresankh II

Cemetery GIS

This cemetery dates from the time of Menkaure (Junker) or earlier (Reisner), and contains several stone-built mastabas dating from as late as the 6th dynasty. Tombs from the time of Menkaure include the mastabas of the royal chamberlain Khaemnefert, the King's son Khufudjedef was master of the royal largesse, and an official named Niankhre.[6]:216–228

Central Field

The Central Field contains several burials of royal family members. The tombs range in date from the end of the 4th dynasty to the 5th dynasty or even later.[6]:230–293

Central Field – Royalty[6]:230–293
Tomb number Owner Comments
G 8172 (LG 86) Nebemakhet Son of Khafre, served as Vizier
G 8158 (LG 87) Nikaure Son of Khafre and Persenet, served as Vizier
G 8156 (LG 88) Persenet Wife of Khafre
G 8154 (LG 89) Sekhemkare Son of Khafre and Hekenuhedjet
G 8140 Niuserre Son of Khafre, Vizier in the 5th dynasty
G 8130 Niankhre King's Son, probably 5th dynasty
G 8080 (LG 92) Iunmin King's Son, end of 4th dynasty
G 8260 Babaef Son of Khafre, end of 4th dynasty
G 8466 Iunre Son of Khafre, end of 4th dynasty
G 8464 Hemetre Probably daughter of Khafre, end of 4th dynasty or 5th dynasty
G 8460 Ankhmare King's son and Vizier, end of 4th dynasty
G 8530 Rekhetre King's daughter (of Khafre) and Queen, end of 4th dynasty or 5th dynasty
G 8408 Bunefer King's daughter and Queen, end of 4th dynasty or 5th dynasty
G 8978 Khamerernebty I King's daughter and Queen, middle to end of 4th dynasty. Also known as the Galarza Tomb

Tombs dating from the Saite and later period were found near the causeway of Khafre and the Great Sphinx. These tombs include the tomb of a commander of the army named Ahmose and his mother Queen Nakhtubasterau, who was the wife of Pharaoh Amasis II.[6]:289–290

South Field

The South Field includes mastabas dating from the 1st-3rd Dynasties as well as later burials.[16] Of the more significant of these early dynastic tombs includes one referred to as "Covington's tomb", otherwise known as Mastaba T, and the large Mastaba V which contained artifacts naming the 1st Dynasty pharaoh Djet.[17][16] Other tombs date from the late Old Kingdom (5th and 6th dynasty). The south section of the field contains several tombs dating from the Saite period and later.[6]:294–297

Tombs of the pyramid builders

In 1990, tombs belonging to the pyramid workers were discovered alongside the pyramids with an additional burial site found nearby in 2009. Although not mummified, they had been buried in mud-brick tombs with beer and bread to support them in the afterlife. The tombs' proximity to the pyramids and the manner of burial supports the theory that they were paid laborers who took great pride in their work and were not slaves, as was previously thought. Evidence from the tombs indicates that a workforce of 10,000 laborers working in three-month shifts took around 30 years to build a pyramid. Most of the workers appear to have come from poor families. Specialists such as architects, masons, metalworkers and carpenters, were permanently employed by the king to fill positions that required the most skill.[18][19][20][21]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Giza piramidaları
беларуская: Піраміды Гізы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Піраміды Гізы
български: Пирамиди в Гиза
bosanski: Piramide u Gizi
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޖީޒާގެ ޕިރަމިޑް
Fiji Hindi: Pyramids of Giza
hrvatski: Piramide u Gizi
Bahasa Indonesia: Kompleks piramida Giza
Basa Jawa: Piramidha Giza
Kiswahili: Piramidi za Giza
Lëtzebuergesch: Pyramide vu Gizeh
lietuvių: Gizos piramidės
македонски: Пирамиди во Гиза
Bahasa Melayu: Kompleks piramid Giza
Nedersaksies: Piramides van Giza
norsk nynorsk: Pyramidane ved Giza
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Giza piramidalari
پنجابی: اہرام مصر
Qaraqalpaqsha: Giza piramidaları
Soomaaliga: Giza Pyramids
српски / srpski: Велике пирамиде
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Velike piramide
татарча/tatarça: Cizä piramidaları
українська: Піраміди Гізи
žemaitėška: Gizas pėramėdės