^Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term "Kaiserreich" literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although "Reich" has been used in German to denote the
Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition. In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich, which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a "
presidency" of a
confederation of German states led by the
King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the
The German Empire." Harper's New Monthly Magazine. vol. 63, issue 376, pp. 591–603; here p. 593.[neutrality is
^World Book, Inc. The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc., 2003. p. 572. States that Deutsches Reich translates as "German Realm" and was a former official name of Germany.
^Joseph Whitaker. Whitaker's almanack, 1991. J Whitaker & Sons, 1990. Pp. 765. Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.
^See, for example, Roger Chickering, Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014; Cornelius Torp and Sven Oliver Müller, eds., Imperial Germany Revisited: Continuing Debates & New Perspectives. Oxford: Berghahn, 2011; James Retallack, ed., Imperial Germany 1871-1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008; Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.
^Richard E. Frankel, "From the Beer Halls to the Halls of Power: The Cult of Bismarck and the Legitimization of a New German Right, 1898–1945," German Studies Review, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Oct., 2003), pp. 543–560 in JSTOR
^Fitzpatrick, Matthew (2007). "A Fall from Grace? National Unity and the Search for Naval Power and Colonial Possessions 1848–1884". German History. 25 (2): 135–161.
^Ciarlo, David (2008). "Globalizing German Colonialism". German History. 26 (2): 285–298.
^L. Gann and Peter Duignan, The Rulers of German Africa, 1884–1914 (1977) focuses on political and economic history; Michael Perraudin and Jürgen Zimmerer, eds. German Colonialism and National Identity (2010) focuses on cultural impact in Africa and Germany.
^Dedering, Tilman (1993). "The German‐Herero war of 1904: Revisionism of Genocide or Imaginary Historiography?". Journal of Southern African Studies. 19 (1): 80–88.
^Edmond Taylor, The fossil monarchies: the collapse of the old order, 1905–1922 (1967) p 206
abE. P. Hennock, The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850–1914: Social Policies Compared (2007)
^Allan Mitchell, Great Train Race: Railways and the Franco-German Rivalry, 1815–1914 (2000)
^Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871–1887 (1998)
^Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany: 1840–1945 (1969), pp. 258–260
^Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (2006) pp. 568–576
^Hermann Beck, Origins of the Authoritarian Welfare State in Prussia, 1815–1870 (1995)
^Elaine Glovka Spencer, "Rules of the Ruhr: Leadership and Authority in German Big Business Before 1914", Business History Review, Spring 1979, Vol. 53 Issue 1, pp. 40–64; Ivo N. Lambi, "The Protectionist Interests of the German Iron and Steel Industry, 1873–1879", Journal of Economic History, March 1962, Vol. 22 Issue 1, pp. 59–70
^Timothy Baycroft and Mark Hewitson, What is a nation?: Europe 1789–1914 (2006) p 166
^John J. Kulczycki, School Strikes in Prussian Poland, 1901–1907: The Struggle over Bilingual Education (Columbia University Press, 1981)
^Jürgen Kocka, "German History before Hitler: The Debate about the German 'Sonderweg'". Journal of Contemporary History, Jan 1988, Vol. 23#1, pp 3–16 in JSTOR
^Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte: Vom Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges bis zur Gründung der Beiden Deutschen Staaten 1914–1949 (2003) is the fourth volume of his monumental history of German society. None of the series has yet been translated into English. A partial summary appears in Hans-Ulrich Wehler, The German Empire, 1871–1918 (1997)
^Helmut Walser Smith, "When the Sonderweg Debate Left Us", German Studies Review, May 2008, Vol. 31#2 pp 225–240