German Empire | references

References

  1. ^ Whitaker's Almanak, 1897, by Joseph Whitaker; p. 548
  2. ^ Statement of Abdication of Wilhelm II
  3. ^ "German Empire: administrative subdivision and municipalities, 1900 to 1910" (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  4. ^ "Population statistics of the German Empire, 1871" (in German). Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  5. ^ "German constitution of 1871" (in German). German Wikisource. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
  6. ^ Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people. The term "Kaiserreich" literally denotes an empire – particularly a hereditary empire led by an emperor, although "Reich" has been used in German to denote the Roman Empire because it had a weak hereditary tradition. In the case of the German Empire, the official name was Deutsches Reich, which is properly translated as "German Empire" because the official position of head of state in the constitution of the German Empire was officially a "presidency" of a confederation of German states led by the King of Prussia who would assume "the title of German Emperor" as referring to the The German Empire." Harper's New Monthly Magazine. vol. 63, issue 376, pp. 591–603; here p. 593.[neutrality is disputed]
  7. ^ World Book, Inc. The World Book dictionary, Volume 1. World Book, Inc., 2003. p. 572. States that Deutsches Reich translates as "German Realm" and was a former official name of Germany.
  8. ^ Joseph Whitaker. Whitaker's almanack, 1991. J Whitaker & Sons, 1990. Pp. 765. Refers to the term Deutsches Reich being translated into English as "German Realm", up to and including the Nazi period.
  9. ^ See, for example, Roger Chickering, Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014; Cornelius Torp and Sven Oliver Müller, eds., Imperial Germany Revisited: Continuing Debates & New Perspectives. Oxford: Berghahn, 2011; James Retallack, ed., Imperial Germany 1871-1918. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008; Isabel V. Hull, Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.
  10. ^ Kitchen 2011, p. 108.
  11. ^ Michael Kotulla: Deutsches Verfassungsrecht 1806–1918. Eine Dokumentensammlung nebst Einführungen. 1. Band: Gesamtdeutschland, Anhaltische Staaten und Baden. Springer, Berlin 2006, pp. 231, 246
  12. ^ J. H. Clapham, The Economic Development of France and Germany 1815–1914 (1936)
  13. ^ "Nobel Prizes by Country – Evolution of National Science Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century, by Citizenship (Juergen Schmidhuber, 2010)". Idsia.ch. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  14. ^ Azar Gat (2008). War in Human Civilization. Oxford University Press. p. 517. ISBN 978-0-19-923663-3.
  15. ^ Diese deutschen Wörter kennt man noch in der Südsee, von Matthias Heine "Einst hatten die Deutschen das drittgrößte Kolonialreich[...]"
  16. ^ Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1987)
  17. ^ Heeren, Arnold Hermann Ludwig (1873). A Manual of the History of the Political System of Europe and its Colonies. London: H. G. Bohn. p. 480
  18. ^ Case, Nelson (1902). European Constitutional History. Cincinnati: Jennings & Pye. p. 139. 608806061.
  19. ^ Case 1902, pp. 139–140
  20. ^ a b Case 1902, p. 140
  21. ^ The Slavic speakers included Polish, Masurian, Kashubian, Sorbian and Czech were located in the east; Polish mainly in the Prussian provinces of Posen, West Prussia and Silesia (Upper Silesia). Small islands also existed in Recklinghausen (Westphalia) with 13.8% of the population and in the Kreis of Kalau (Brandenburg) (5.5%) and in parts of East Prussia and Pomerania. Czech was spoken predominantly in the south of the Silesia, Masurian in the south of East Prussia, Kashubian in the north of West Prussia and Sorbian in the Lusatian regions of Prussia (Brandenburg and Silesia) and the Kingdom of Saxony.
  22. ^ "Fremdsprachige Minderheiten im Deutschen Reich" (in German). Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
  23. ^ Kersbergen, Kees van; Vis, Barbara (2013). Comparative Welfare State Politics: Development, Opportunities, and Reform. Cambridge UP. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-107-65247-7.
  24. ^ Moore, Robert Laurence; Vaudagna, Maurizio (2003). The American Century in Europe. Cornell University Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8014-4075-0.
  25. ^ Richard E. Frankel, "From the Beer Halls to the Halls of Power: The Cult of Bismarck and the Legitimization of a New German Right, 1898–1945," German Studies Review, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Oct., 2003), pp. 543–560 in JSTOR
  26. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 (1987), p. 312.
  27. ^ Young, William (2006). German Diplomatic Relations 1871-1945: The Wilhelmstrasse And the Formulation Of Foreign Policy. New York: iUniverse. p. 33. ISBN 9780595407064.
  28. ^ a b Gvosdev, Nikolas; Marsh, Christopher (2013). Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press. p. 241. ISBN 9781452234847.
  29. ^ a b Tipton, Frank (2003). A History of Modern Germany Since 1815. London: Continuum. p. 170. ISBN 0826449093.
  30. ^ Mshana, Rogate. "The Economic Impact of German Colonial Rule and the Question of Reparation". www.tanzania.com. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  31. ^ Fitzpatrick, Matthew (2007). "A Fall from Grace? National Unity and the Search for Naval Power and Colonial Possessions 1848–1884". German History. 25 (2): 135–161. 10.1177/0266355406075719.
  32. ^ Ciarlo, David (2008). "Globalizing German Colonialism". German History. 26 (2): 285–298. 10.1093/gerhis/ghn007.
  33. ^ L. Gann and Peter Duignan, The Rulers of German Africa, 1884–1914 (1977) focuses on political and economic history; Michael Perraudin and Jürgen Zimmerer, eds. German Colonialism and National Identity (2010) focuses on cultural impact in Africa and Germany.
  34. ^ Dedering, Tilman (1993). "The German‐Herero war of 1904: Revisionism of Genocide or Imaginary Historiography?". Journal of Southern African Studies. 19 (1): 80–88. 10.1080/03057079308708348.
  35. ^ Edmond Taylor, The fossil monarchies: the collapse of the old order, 1905–1922 (1967) p 206
  36. ^ a b E. P. Hennock, The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850–1914: Social Policies Compared (2007)
  37. ^ Allan Mitchell, Great Train Race: Railways and the Franco-German Rivalry, 1815–1914 (2000)
  38. ^ Edgar Feuchtwanger, Imperial Germany, 1850–1918 (2006), Table 1
  39. ^ Jochen Streb, et al. "Technological and geographical knowledge spillover in the German empire 1877–1918", Economic History Review, May 2006, Vol. 59 Issue 2, pp. 347–373
  40. ^ Stephen Broadberry, and Kevin H. O'Rourke. The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe (2 vol. 2010)
  41. ^ John J. Beer, The Emergence of the German Dye Industry (1959).
  42. ^ Werner Abelshauser, German History and Global Enterprise: BASF: The History of a Company (2004) covers 1865 to 2000;
  43. ^ Chandler (1990) pp. 474–475
  44. ^ Carsten Burhop, "Pharmaceutical Research in Wilhelmine Germany: the Case of E. Merck," Business History Review. Volume: 83. Issue: 3. 2009. pp 475+. in ProQuest
  45. ^ J.A.S. Grenville, Europe reshaped, 1848–1878 (2000) p. 342
  46. ^ Marjorie Lamberti, "Religious conflicts and German national identity in Prussia, 1866–1914", in Philip G. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: 1830–1947 (2001) pp. 169–187
  47. ^ Lamberti, (2001) p 177
  48. ^ Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871–1887 (1998)
  49. ^ Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany: 1840–1945 (1969), pp. 258–260
  50. ^ Christopher Clark, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (2006) pp. 568–576
  51. ^ Hermann Beck, Origins of the Authoritarian Welfare State in Prussia, 1815–1870 (1995)
  52. ^ Elaine Glovka Spencer, "Rules of the Ruhr: Leadership and Authority in German Big Business Before 1914", Business History Review, Spring 1979, Vol. 53 Issue 1, pp. 40–64; Ivo N. Lambi, "The Protectionist Interests of the German Iron and Steel Industry, 1873–1879", Journal of Economic History, March 1962, Vol. 22 Issue 1, pp. 59–70
  53. ^ Timothy Baycroft and Mark Hewitson, What is a nation?: Europe 1789–1914 (2006) p 166
  54. ^ John J. Kulczycki, School Strikes in Prussian Poland, 1901–1907: The Struggle over Bilingual Education (Columbia University Press, 1981)
  55. ^ Martin Broszat: Zweihundert Jahre deutsche Polenpolitik. suhrkamp 1978, p. 144; ISBN 3-518-36574-6
  56. ^ Richard S. Levy, The Downfall of the Anti-Semitic Political Parties in Imperial Germany (Yale University Press, 1975)
  57. ^ Kitchen, Martin (2000). Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany. Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-521-79432-9.
  58. ^ a b c Kurtz, Harold (1970). The Second Reich: Kaiser Wilhelm II and his Germany. McGraw-Hill. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-07-035653-5.
  59. ^ Stürmer, Michael (2000). The German Empire: 1870–1918. New York: Random House. p. 63. ISBN 0-679-64090-8.
  60. ^ a b Kurtz, Harold (1970) 63
  61. ^ Isabel V. Hull, The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888–1918 (2004) p. 85
  62. ^ Kurtz, Harold (1970) 67
  63. ^ a b Kurtz, Harold (1970) 72
  64. ^ Geoffrey Cocks and Konrad H. Jarausch, eds. German Professions, 1800–1950 (1990)
  65. ^ Kurtz, Harold (1970) 76
  66. ^ Matthew Jefferies, Imperial Culture in Germany, 1871–1918 (2003).
  67. ^ Kurtz, Harold (1970) 56
  68. ^ Lamar Cecil, Wilhelm II: Emperor and Exile, 1900–1941 (1996) ch 9–13
  69. ^ "Wilhelm II (1859–1941)". BBC. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  70. ^ Stürmer, Michael (2000) 91
  71. ^ Louis, Ruanda-Urundi 1884–1919, p. 163
  72. ^ Austria's Werner Abelshauser, German History and Global Enterprise: BASF: The History of a Company (2004) covers 1865 to 2000;
  73. ^ Matthew Stibbe (2006). German Anglophobia and the Great War, 1914-1918. Cambridge UP. pp. 176–178.
  74. ^ Edwin Hoyt, Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck and Germany's East African Empire (1981)
  75. ^ Holger H. Herwig, The First World War: Germany and Austria–Hungary 1914–1918 (1996)
  76. ^ Rod Paschall, The defeat of imperial Germany, 1917–1918 (1994)
  77. ^ "1914–18: Lebensmittelversorgung" (in German).
  78. ^ Roger Chickering, Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914–1918 (2004) p. 141–42
  79. ^ A. J. Ryder, The German Revolution of 1918: A Study of German Socialism in War and Revolt (2008)
  80. ^ "A New Surge of Growth". Library of Congress.
  81. ^ Jürgen Kocka (January 1988). "German History before Hitler: The Debate about the German 'Sonderweg'". Journal of Contemporary History. 23 (1): 3–16. 260865.
  82. ^ Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte: Vom Beginn des Ersten Weltkrieges bis zur Gründung der Beiden Deutschen Staaten 1914–1949 (2003) is the fourth volume of his monumental history of German society. None of the series has yet been translated into English. A partial summary appears in Hans-Ulrich Wehler, The German Empire, 1871–1918 (1997)
  83. ^ Helmut Walser Smith (May 2008). "When the Sonderweg Debate Left Us". German Studies Review. 31 (2): 225–240.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Duitse Keiserryk
aragonés: Imperio alemán
asturianu: Imperiu alemán
azərbaycanca: Almaniya İmperiyası
Bân-lâm-gú: Tek-ì-chì Tè-kok
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нямецкая імпэрыя
español: Imperio alemán
français: Empire allemand
한국어: 독일 제국
Bahasa Indonesia: Kekaisaran Jerman
italiano: Impero tedesco
لۊری شومالی: ئمپئراتوٙری آلمان
Lingua Franca Nova: Impero Deutx
lumbaart: Imperi todesch
македонски: Германско Царство
Bahasa Melayu: Empayar Jerman
Nederlands: Duitse Keizerrijk
日本語: ドイツ帝国
Nordfriisk: Schiisk Keiserrik
norsk nynorsk: Det tyske keisardømet
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Germaniya imperiyasi
پنجابی: جرمن سلطنت
Papiamentu: Imperio Alemán
português: Império Alemão
română: Imperiul German
Simple English: German Empire
slovenščina: Nemško cesarstvo
српски / srpski: Немачко царство
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Njemačko Carstvo
татарча/tatarça: Алман империясе
Türkmençe: German imperiýasy
українська: Німецька імперія
vepsän kel’: Germanijan imperii
Tiếng Việt: Đế quốc Đức