Firestorm | references

References

  1. ^ a b c American National Fire Protection Association (2005), Scawthorn, Charles; Eidinger, John M.; Schiff, Anshel J., eds., Fire Following Earthquake, Issue 26 of Monograph (American Society of Civil Engineers. Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering), American Society of Civil Engineers Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering (illustrated ed.), ASCE Publications, p. 68, ISBN  978-0-7844-0739-4 
  2. ^ Alexander Mckee's Dresden 1945: The Devil's Tinderbox
  3. ^ "PROBLEMS OF FIRE IN NUCLEAR WARFARE (1961)" (PDF). Dtic.mil. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2016. A fire storm is characterized by strong to gale force winds blowing toward the fire everywhere around the fire perimeter and results from the rising column of hot gases over an intense, mass fire drawing in the cool air from the periphery. These winds blow the fire brands into the burning area and tend to cool the unignited fuel outside so that ignition by radiated heat is more difficult, thus limiting fire spread. 
  4. ^ a b "Problems of fire in Nuclear Warfare 1961" (PDF). Dtic.mil. pp. 8 & 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Weaver & Biko.
  6. ^ a b Gess & Lutz 2003, p. 234
  7. ^ Hemphill, Stephanie (27 November 2002). "Peshtigo: A Tornado of Fire Revisited". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 22 July 2015. The town was at the center of a tornado of flame. The fire was coming from all directions at once, and the winds were roaring at 100 mph. 
  8. ^ James Killus (2007-08-16). "Unintentional Irony: Firestorms". Unintentional-irony.blogspot.no. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  9. ^ Chris Cavanagh. "Thermal Radiation Damage". Holbert.faculty.asu.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  10. ^ Glasstone, Samuel; Dolan, Philip J., eds. (1977), ""Chapter VII — Thermal Radiation and Its Effects" (PDF), The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (Third ed.), United States Department of Defense and the Energy Research and Development Administration, pp. 229, 200, § "Mass Fires" ¶ 7.58 
  11. ^ "Direct Effects of Nuclear Detonations" (PDF). Dge.standord.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  12. ^ "NASA – Fire-Breathing Storm Systems". Nasa.gov. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  13. ^ Glasstone, Samuel; Dolan, Philip J., eds. (1977), ""Chapter VII — Thermal Radiation and Its Effects" (PDF), The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (Third ed.), United States Department of Defense and the Energy Research and Development Administration, pp. 229, 200, § "Mass Fires" ¶ 7.59 
  14. ^ Kartman & Brown 1971, p. 48.
  15. ^ "Atmospheric Processes : Chapter=4" (PDF). Globalecology.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  16. ^ Fromm, M.; Stocks, B.; Servranckx, R.; et al. (2006). "Smoke in the Stratosphere: What Wildfires have Taught Us About Nuclear Winter". Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. 87 (52 Fall Meet. Suppl.): Abstract U14A–04. the original on 6 October 2014. 
  17. ^ "NASA – Fire-Breathing Storm Systems". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  18. ^ Fromm, M.; Tupper, A.; Rosenfeld, D.; Servranckx, R.; McRae, R. (2006). "Violent pyro-convective storm devastates Australia's capital and pollutes the stratosphere". Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (5). 2006GeoRL..33.5815F. 10.1029/2005GL025161. 
  19. ^ Riebeek, Holli (2010-08-31). "Russian Firestorm: Finding a Fire Cloud from Space : Feature Articles". Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  20. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Tubbs-Fire-unleashed-fiery-tornadoes-that-12289228.php
  21. ^ a b c d e Harris 2005, p. 83
  22. ^ a b "Page 24 of Planning Guidance for response to a nuclear detonation. Written with the collaboration of FEMA & NASA to name a few agencies" (PDF). Hps.org. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  23. ^ Frankland & Webster 1961, pp. 260–261.
  24. ^ a b c d "Exploratory Analysis of Fire storms". Dtic.mil. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  25. ^ a b The Cold War Who won? pg 82 to 88 Chapter 18 https://www.scribd.com/doc/49221078/18-Fire-in-WW-II
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009. 
  27. ^ Neutzner 2010, p. 70.
  28. ^ a b De Bruhl (2006), pp. 209.
  29. ^ a b American National Fire Protection Association 2005, p. 24.
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  31. ^ Rodden, Robert M.; John, Floyd I.; Laurino, Richard (May 1965). Exploratory analysis of Firestorms., Stanford Research Institute, pp. 39, 40, 53–54. Office of Civil Defense, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C.
  32. ^ Werrell, Kenneth P (1996). Blankets of Fire. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 164. ISBN  1-56098-665-4. 
  33. ^ Michael D. Gordin (2007). Five days in August: how World War II became a nuclear war. Princeton University Press. p. 21. ISBN  0-691-12818-9. 
  34. ^ Technical Sergeant Steven Wilson (25 February 2010). "This month in history: The firebombing of Dresden". Ellsworth Air Force Base. the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  35. ^ a b U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II: Combat Chronology. March 1945. Archived 2 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Air Force Historical Studies Office. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
  36. ^ Freeman Dyson. (1 November 2006), "Part I: A Failure of Intelligence", Technology Review, MIT 
  37. ^ Mark Selden. A Forgotten Holocaust: US Bombing Strategy, the Destruction of Japanese Cities and the American Way of War from the Pacific War to Iraq. Japan Focus, 2 May 2007 Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (in English)
  38. ^ Glasstone & Dolan 1977, pp. 299, 200, ¶ 7.58.
  39. ^ McRaney & McGahan 1980, p. 24.
  40. ^ a b c "Exploratory Analysis of Fire Storms". Dtic.mil. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  41. ^ Hafemeister 1991, p. 24 (¶ 2nd to last).
  42. ^ Glasstone & Dolan 1977, pp. 299, 300, ¶ 7.58.
  43. ^ Angell (1953)
  44. ^ "MEDICAL EFFECTS OF ATOMIC BOMBS THE REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMISSION FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE ATOMIC BOMB IN JAPAN VOLUME 1 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect". Osti.gov. 1951-04-19. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  45. ^ "On page 31 of Exploratory analysis of Firestorms. It was reported that the weight of fuel per acre in several California cities is 70 to 100 tons per acre. This amounts to about 3.5 to 5 pounds per square foot of fire area (~20 kg per square meter)". Dtic.mil. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  46. ^ "Canadian cities fuel loading from Validation of Methodologies to Determine Fire Load for Use in Structural Fire Protection" (PDF). Nfpa.org. 2011. p. 42. Retrieved 2016-05-11. The mean fire load density in buildings, from the most accurate weighing method, was found to be 530 MJ/m^2. The fire load density of a building can be directly converted into building fuel load density as outlined in the document with Wood having a specific energy of ~18 MJ/kg. Thus 530/18 = 29 kg/m^2 of building fuel loading. This, again, is below the necessary 40kg/m^2 needed for a firestorm, even before the open spaces between buildings are included/before the corrective builtupness factor is applied and the all-important fire area fuel loading is found 
  47. ^ "Determining Design Fires for Design-level and Extreme Events, SFPE 6th International Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods" (PDF). Fire.nist.gov. 14 June 2006. p. 3. Retrieved 2016-05-11. The .90 fractile of buildings in Switzerland (that is 90% of buildings surveyed fall under the stated fire loading figure) had 'fuel loadings below the crucial 8 lb/sqft or 40 kg/m^2 density'. The .90 fractile is found by multiplying the mean value found by 1.65. Keep in mind, none of these figures even take the builtupness factor into consideration, thus the all-important fire area fuel loading is not presented, that is, the area including the open spaces between buildings. Unless otherwise stated within the publications, the data presented is individual building fuel loadings and not the essential fire area fuel loadings. As a point of example, a city with buildings of a mean fuel loading of 40kg/m^2 but with a builtupness factor of 70%, with the rest of the city area covered by pavements, etc., would have a fire area fuel loading of 0.7*40kg/m^2 present, or 28 kg/m^2 of fuel loading in the fire area. As the fuel load density publications generally do not specify the builtupness factor of the metropolis where the buildings were surveyed, one can safely assume that the fire area fuel loading would be some factor less if builtupness was taken into account 
  48. ^ "'The Cold War: Who won? This ebook cites the firebombing reported in Horatio Bond's book Fire in the Air War National Fire Protection Association, 1946, p. 125 – Why didn't Berlin suffer a mass fire? The table on pg 88 of Cold War: Who Won? was sourced from the same 1946 book by Horatio Bond Fire in the Air War pg 87 and 598". Scribd.com. B000I30O32. Retrieved 2016-05-11. 
  49. ^ a b c Glasstone, Samuel; Dolan, Philip J., eds. (1977), ""Chapter VII — Thermal Radiation and Its Effects" (PDF), The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (Third ed.), United States Department of Defense and the Energy Research and Development Administration, pp. 300, § "Mass Fires" ¶ 7.61 
  50. ^ a b United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Summary Report (Pacific War). Washington: United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved November 6, 2013. 
  51. ^ "United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Summary Report". Marshall.csu.edu.au. Retrieved 2016-05-11. '+would have required 220 B-29s carrying 1,200 tons of incendiary bombs, 400 tons of high-explosive bombs, and 500 tons of anti-personnel fragmentation bombs, if conventional weapons, rather than an atomic bomb, had been used. One hundred and twenty-five B-29s carrying 1,200 tons of bombs (Page 25 ) would have been required to approximate the damage and casualties at Nagasaki. This estimate pre-supposed bombing under conditions similar to those existing when the atomic bombs were dropped and bombing accuracy equal to the average attained by the Twentieth Air Force during the last 3 months of the war 
  52. ^
    • Angell (1953) The number of bombers and tonnage of bombs are taken from a USAF document written in 1953 and classified secret until 1978.
    • Bomber Command Archived 3 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine., National Archives, Catalogue ref: AIR 16/487, which states that more than 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) were destroyed.
  53. ^
    • Angell (1953) The number of bombers and tonnage of bombs are taken from a USAF document written in 1953 and classified secret until 1978. Also see Taylor (2005), front flap, which gives the figures 1,100 heavy bombers and 4,500 tons.
  54. ^ a b Laurence M. Vance (14 August 2009). "Bombings Worse than Nagasaki and Hiroshima". The Future of Freedom Foundation. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  55. ^ a b Joseph Coleman (10 March 2005). "1945 Tokyo Firebombing Left Legacy of Terror, Pain". CommonDreams.org. Associated Press. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  56. ^ "News in Brief". Flight: 33. 10 January 1946. 
  57. ^ "March 9, 1945: Burning the Heart Out of the Enemy". Wired Digital. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  58. ^ Kolko, Gabriel (1990) [1968]. The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1943–1945. pp. 539–40. 
  59. ^ De Bruhl (2006), pp. 210–11.
  60. ^ Taylor, Bloomsbury 2005, pp. 287,296,365.
  61. ^ Longmate (1983), pp. 162–4.

Further reading

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Vuurstorm
العربية: عاصفة نارية
български: Огнена буря
čeština: Ohnivá bouře
dansk: Ildstorm
Deutsch: Feuersturm
español: Tormenta ígnea
français: Tempête de feu
Bahasa Indonesia: Badai api
עברית: סופת אש
Bahasa Melayu: Ribut api
Nederlands: Vuurstorm
日本語: 火災旋風
norsk: Ildstorm
português: Tempestade ígnea
slovenščina: Ognjeni vihar
suomi: Tulimyrsky
svenska: Eldstorm
українська: Вогняний смерч
Tiếng Việt: Bão lửa
中文: 火災暴風