Cyclotron | references

References

  1. ^ a b "Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron". www2.lbl.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  2. ^ "Ernest Lawrence - Biographical". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  3. ^ U.S. Patent 1,948,384 Lawrence, Ernest O. Method and apparatus for the acceleration of ions, filed: January 26, 1932, granted: February 20, 1934
  4. ^ a b c Lawrence, Earnest O.; Livingston, M. Stanley (April 1, 1932). "The Production of High Speed Light Ions Without the Use of High Voltages". Physical Review. American Physical Society. 40 (1): 19–35. 1932PhRv...40...19L. 10.1103/PhysRev.40.19. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  5. ^ Nave, C. R. (2012). "Cyclotron". Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University. Retrieved October 26, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c Close, F. E.; Close, Frank; Marten, Michael; et al. (2004). The Particle Odyssey: A Journey to the Heart of Matter. Oxford University Press. pp. 84–87. ISBN 0-19-860943-4.
  7. ^ "Ernest Lawrence - Facts". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  8. ^ Group, IPD (3 December 2015). "MEDraysintell identifies more than 1,200 medical cyclotrons worldwide". einnews.com.
  9. ^ Alonso, M.; Finn, E. (1992). Physics. Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-56518-8.
  10. ^ F.J. Mann, "Federal Telephone and Radio Corporation, A Historical Review: 1909-1946," Electrical Communications Vol. 23, No. 4 (December 1946): 397-398.
  11. ^ "Ernest Lawrence and M. Stanley Livingston". University of California, Berkeley.
  12. ^ Widerøe, R. (1928). "Ueber Ein Neues Prinzip Zur Herstellung Hoher Spannungen". Archiv für Elektronik und Übertragungstechnik (in German). 21 (4): 387. 10.1007/BF01656341.
  13. ^ "Breaking Through: A Century of Physics at Berkeley 1886–1968 2. The Cyclotron". Bancroft Library, the original on 2012-02-25.
  14. ^ Emelyanov, V. S. (1971). "Nuclear Energy in the Soviet Union". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 27 (9): 39. State Institute of Radium, founded in 1922, now known as V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute
  15. ^ "History / Memorial". V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute. Archived from the original on 2011-04-26. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
  16. ^ "History / Chronology". Archived from the original on 2011-04-26. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
  17. ^ Singh, Kongbam Chandramani (2009). Basic Physics. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Ltd. pp. 211–212. ISBN 8120337085.
  18. ^ a b Lee, S.-Y. (1999). Accelerator physics. World Scientific. p. 14. ISBN 981-02-3709-X.
  19. ^ Thomas, L. H. (1938). "The Paths of Ions in the Cyclotron I. Orbits in the Magnetic Field". Physical Review. 54 (8): 580–588. 1938PhRv...54..580T. 10.1103/PhysRev.54.580.
  20. ^ Hume, M. (21 February 2012). "In a breakthrough, Canadian researchers develop a new way to produce medical isotopes". The Globe and Mail. Vancouver.
  21. ^ Kamigaito, O.; et al. (2010). "Status of RIBF accelerators RIKEN" (PDF). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Cyclotrons and their Applications.
  22. ^ "Largest cyclotron". guinnessworldrecords.com.
  23. ^ Glen Weldon; Michael Kantor. Superheroes!:Capes cowls and the creation of comic book culture. p. 91.
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