Anno Domini | references



  1. ^ The word "anno" is often capitalized, but this is considered incorrect by many authorities and either not mentioned in major dictionaries or only listed as an alternative. Wikipedia's Manual of Style also prescribes lowercase.
  2. ^ The word "before" is often capitalized, but this is considered incorrect by many authorities and either not mentioned in major dictionaries or only listed as an alternative. Wikipedia's manual of style also prescribes lowercase.
  3. ^ This convention comes from grammatical usage. Anno 500 means "in the year 500"; anno domini 500 means "in the year 500 of Our Lord". Just as "500 in the year" is not good English syntax, neither is 500 AD; whereas "AD 500" preserves syntactic order when translated.[12]
  4. ^ To convert from a year BC to astronomical year numbering, reduce the absolute value of the year by 1, and prefix it with a negative sign (unless the result is zero). For years AD, omit the AD and prefix the number with a plus sign (plus sign is optional if it is clear from the context that the year is after the year 0).[49]


  1. ^ "anno Domini". Collins English Dictionary.
  2. ^ "anno Domini". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  3. ^ "BC". Collins English Dictionary.
  4. ^ "before Christ". American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  5. ^ "BC". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary.
  6. ^ "Anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. Retrieved 2011-10-04. Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord
  7. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 2011-10-04.
  8. ^ Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003, p. 782 "since AD stands for anno Domini, 'in the year of (Our) Lord'"
  9. ^ a b "Zero". The Atlantic.
  10. ^ a b Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003, pp. 778–9.
  11. ^ Eastman, Allan. "A Month of Sundays". Date and Time. Archived from the original on 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  12. ^ Chicago Manual of Style 2010, pp. 476–7; Goldstein 2007, p. 6.
  13. ^ Chicago Manual of Style, 1993, p. 304.
  14. ^ Donald P. Ryan, (2000), 15.
  15. ^ Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003, p. 767.
  16. ^ Nineteen year cycle of Dionysius Introduction and First Argumentum.
  17. ^ Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003, p. 778.
  18. ^ Teres, Gustav (October 1984). "Time computations and Dionysius Exiguus". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 15 (3). pp. 177–188.
  19. ^ Tøndering, Claus, The Calendar FAQ: Counting years
  20. ^ Mosshammer, Alden A (2009). The Easter Computus and the Origins of the Christian Era. Oxford. pp. 345–347.
  21. ^ Declercq, Georges, "Anno Domini. The Origins of the Christian Era" Turnhout, Belgium, 2000
  22. ^ Wallraff, Martin: Julius Africanus und die Christliche Weltchronik. Walter de Gruyter, 2006
  23. ^ Mosshammer, Alden A.: The Easter Computus and the Origins of the Christian Era. Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 254, p. 270, p. 328
  24. ^ Declercq, Georges: Anno Domini. The Origins of the Christian Era. Turnhout Belgium. 2000
  25. ^ Bede 731, Book 1, Chapter 2, first sentence.
  26. ^ Blackburn & Holford-Strevens 2003, p. 881.
  27. ^ a b Patrick, 1908
  28. ^ "General Chronology". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1908. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  29. ^ Fasciculus temporum (1474) used Anno an xpi nativitatem (in the ...(th) year before the birth of Christ) for all years between creation and Jesus. "xpi" is the Greek χρι in Latin letters, which is an abbreviation for Christi. This phrase appears upside down in the centre of recto folios (right hand pages). From Jesus to Pope Sixtus IV he usually used Anno Christi or its abbreviated form Anno xpi (on verso folios—left hand pages). He used Anno mundi alongside all of these terms for all years.
  30. ^ Marking time: the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-471-29827-4. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  31. ^ Hunt, Lynn Avery (2008). Measuring time, making history. p. 33. ISBN 978-963-9776-14-2. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  32. ^ Petau, Denis (1758). search for "ante Christum" in a 1748 reprint of a 1633 abridgement entitled Rationarium temporum by Denis Petau. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  33. ^ A Handbook of Dates, for students of British history, Cambridge University Press, 1945–2000, pp. 8–14.
  34. ^ Dunn, James DG (2003). "Jesus Remembered". Eerdmans Publishing: 324.
  35. ^ Doggett 1992, p579: "Although scholars generally believe that Christ was born some years before AD 1, the historical evidence is too sketchy to allow a definitive dating".
  36. ^ Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1 pp. 113–129
  37. ^ New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pp. 121–124
  38. ^ Roger S. Bagnall and Klaas A. Worp, Chronological Systems of Byzantine Egypt, Leiden, Brill, 2004.
  39. ^ Alfred von Gutschmid, Kleine Schriften, F. Ruehl, Leipzig, 1889, p.433.
  40. ^ Joannis Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum & suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum (in Latin). Francofurti : Tampach. Retrieved 2011-05-18. anno aerae nostrae vulgaris
  41. ^ Kepler, Johann; Vlacq, Adriaan (1635). Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633... Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  42. ^ Sliter, Robert (1652). A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers.
  43. ^ The History of the Works of the Learned. 10. London: Printed for H. Rhodes. January 1708. p. 513. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  44. ^ BBC Team (8 February 2005). "History of Judaism 63BCE–1086CE". BBC Religion & Ethics. British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Year 1: CE – What is nowadays called the 'Current Era' traditionally begins with the birth of a Jewish teacher called Jesus. His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah and later split away from Judaism to found Christianity
  45. ^ Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Post-Biblical History of The Jews. Moss & Brother. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The term common era does not appear in this book; the term Christian era [lowercase] does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly.
  46. ^ Robinson, B.A. (20 April 2009). "Justification of the use of "CE" & "BCE" to identify dates. Trends".
  47. ^ William Safire (17 August 1997). "On Language: B.C./A.D. or B.C.E./C.E.?". The New York Times Magazine.
  48. ^ Cunningham, ed. by Philip A. (2004). Pondering the Passion : what's at stake for Christians and Jews?. Lanham, Md. [u.a.]: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 193. ISBN 978-0742532182.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  49. ^ Doggett, 1992, p. 579


Other Languages
Afrikaans: Anno Domini
العربية: بعد الميلاد
asturianu: Anno Dómini
azərbaycanca: Miladi tarix
Bân-lâm-gú: Chú-āu
български: След Христа
bosanski: Anno Domini
català: Anno Domini
čeština: Anno Domini
Cymraeg: Oed Crist
Deutsch: Anno Domini
eesti: PKr
Ελληνικά: Μ.Χ.
español: Anno Domini
Esperanto: Anno Domini
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italiano: Anno Domini
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Malti: WK
मराठी: इसवी सन
Bahasa Melayu: Tahun Masihi
монгол: Манай эрин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အေဒီ
日本語: 西暦紀元
norsk nynorsk: Kristi fødsel
occitan: Anno Domini
پنجابی: قبل مسیح
português: Anno Domini
română: E.n.
Simple English: Anno Domini
slovenčina: Po Kristovi
slovenščina: Anno Domini
Soomaaliga: C.D
српски / srpski: Anno Domini
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Anno Domini
Basa Sunda: Maséhi
svenska: Efter Kristus
Türkçe: Anno Domini
اردو: قبل مسیح
中文: 基督纪年