Ancient Egypt | notes

Notes

  1. ^ "Chronology". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 16 March 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  2. ^ Dodson (2004) p. 46
  3. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 217
  4. ^ James (2005) p. 8
  5. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 6–7
  6. ^ a b c d e Ward, Cheryl. "World's Oldest Planked Boats", inArchaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001). Archaeological Institute of America.
  7. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 153
  8. ^ James (2005) p. 84
  9. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 17, 67–69
  10. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 17
  11. ^ Choice Cuts: Meat Production in Ancient Egypt. University of Cambridge. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-6831-745-9. 1997140867. 60255819. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  12. ^ Hayes (1964) p. 220
  13. ^ Childe, V. Gordon (1953), New Light on the Most Ancient Near East, (Praeger Publications)
  14. ^ Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone," in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge, 5–77, pp. 46–47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessels," Studien zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altägyptens 5, Heidelberg, pp. 23–26. (See on-line posts: [1] and [2].)
  15. ^ Patai, Raphael (1998), Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times (Princeton Uni Press)
  16. ^ "Chronology of the Naqada Period". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  17. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 61
  18. ^ Hartwig, Melinda K. (2014). A Companion to Ancient Egyptian Art. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 424–425. ISBN 9781444333503.
  19. ^ "Faience in different Periods". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  20. ^ Allen (2000) p. 1
  21. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 6
  22. ^ Robins (1997) p. 32
  23. ^ Clayton (1994) pp. 12–13
  24. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 70
  25. ^ "Early Dynastic Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  26. ^ James (2005) p. 40
  27. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 102
  28. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 116–17
  29. ^ Fekri Hassan. "The Fall of the Old Kingdom". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  30. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 69
  31. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 120
  32. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 146
  33. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 29
  34. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 148
  35. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 79
  36. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 158
  37. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 179–82
  38. ^ Robins (1997) p. 90
  39. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 188
  40. ^ a b Ryholt (1997) p. 310
  41. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 189
  42. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 224
  43. ^ Clayton (1994) pp. 104–07
  44. ^ James (2005) p. 48
  45. ^ Bleiberg (editor), Edward (2005). "Ancient Egypt 2675–332 BCE: Architecture and Design". Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. 1. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  46. ^ Aldred (1988) p. 259
  47. ^ Cline (2001) p. 273
  48. ^ With his two principal wives and large harem, Ramesses II sired more than 100 children. Clayton (1994) p. 146
  49. ^ Tyldesley (2001) pp. 76–77
  50. ^ Killebrew 2013, p. 2. Quote: "First coined in 1881 by the French Egyptologist G. Maspero (1896), the somewhat misleading term "Sea Peoples" encompasses the ethnonyms Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Teresh, Eqwesh, Denyen, Sikil / Tjekker, Weshesh, and Peleset (Philistines). [Footnote: The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as originating from "islands" (tables 1–2; Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.g., Drews 1993, 57 for a summary). The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term. It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill (see, e.g., Sandars 1978; Redford 1992, 243, n. 14; for a recent review of the primary and secondary literature, see Woudhuizen 2006). Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks.]"
  51. ^ The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C., Robert Drews, pp. 48–61 Quote: "The thesis that a great "migration of the Sea Peoples" occurred ca. 1200 B.C. is supposedly based on Egyptian inscriptions, one from the reign of Merneptah and another from the reign of Ramesses III. Yet in the inscriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist (Wolfgang Helck) recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun." Thus the migration hypothesis is based not on the inscriptions themselves but on their interpretation."
  52. ^ James (2005) p. 54
  53. ^ Cerny (1975) p. 645
  54. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 345
  55. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 358
  56. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 383
  57. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 385
  58. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 405
  59. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 411
  60. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 418
  61. ^ James (2005) p. 62
  62. ^ James (2005) p. 63
  63. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 426
  64. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 422
  65. ^ Shaw (2003) p. 431
  66. ^ "The Church in Ancient Society", Henry Chadwick, p. 373, Oxford University Press US, 2001, ISBN 0-19-924695-5
  67. ^ "Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D 100–400", Ramsay MacMullen, p. 63, Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-300-03216-1
  68. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 445
  69. ^ a b c d Manuelian (1998) p. 358
  70. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 363
  71. ^ "Egypt: Coins of the Ptolemies". University College London. 2002. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  72. ^ Meskell (2004) p. 23
  73. ^ a b c Manuelian (1998) p. 372
  74. ^ Walbank (1984) p. 125
  75. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 383
  76. ^ James (2005) p. 136
  77. ^ Billard (1978) p. 109
  78. ^ "Social classes in ancient Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  79. ^ a b c "Women's Legal Rights in Ancient Egypt". University of Chicago, 2004. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  80. ^ Slavery in Ancient Egypt Archived 30 August 2012 at the Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  81. ^ Oakes (2003) p. 472
  82. ^ McDowell (1999) p. 168
  83. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 361
  84. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 514
  85. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 506
  86. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 510
  87. ^ Nicholson (2000) pp. 577 and 630
  88. ^ a b Strouhal (1989) p. 117
  89. ^ a b c Manuelian (1998) p. 381
  90. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 409
  91. ^ Heptner, V.G., Sludskij, A.A. (1992) [1972]. "Lion". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 83–95.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  92. ^ Oakes (2003) p. 229
  93. ^ Greaves (1929) p. 123
  94. ^ Lucas (1962) p. 413
  95. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 28
  96. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulfur. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. A. Jorgensen and C.J. Cleveland, National Council for Science and the environment, Washington DC Archived 28 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ Scheel (1989) p. 14
  98. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 166
  99. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 51
  100. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 72
  101. ^ Naomi Porat and Edwin van den Brink (editor), "An Egyptian Colony in Southern Palestine During the Late Predynastic to Early Dynastic," in The Nile Delta in Transition: 4th to 3rd Millennium BC (1992), pp. 433–40.
  102. ^ Naomi Porat, "Local Industry of Egyptian Pottery in Southern Palestine During the Early Bronze I Period," in Bulletin of the Egyptological, Seminar 8 (1986/1987), pp. 109–29. See also University College London web post, 2000.
  103. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 322
  104. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 145
  105. ^ Harris (1990) p. 13
  106. ^ Loprieno (1995b) p. 2137
  107. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 161
  108. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 162
  109. ^ Loprieno (1995b) pp. 2137–38
  110. ^ Vittman (1991) pp. 197–227
  111. ^ Loprieno (1995a) p. 46
  112. ^ Loprieno (1995a) p. 74
  113. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 175
  114. ^ Allen (2000) pp. 67, 70, 109
  115. ^ Loprieno (2005) p. 2147
  116. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 173
  117. ^ Allen (2000) p. 13
  118. ^ Loprieno (1995a) pp. 10–26
  119. ^ Allen (2000) p. 7
  120. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 166
  121. ^ El-Daly (2005) p. 164
  122. ^ Allen (2000) p. 8
  123. ^ Strouhal (1989) p. 235
  124. ^ Lichtheim (1975) p. 11
  125. ^ Lichtheim (1975) p. 215
  126. ^ "Wisdom in Ancient Israel", John Day, /John Adney Emerton, /Robert P. Gordon/ Hugh Godfrey/Maturin Williamson, p. 23, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-62489-4
  127. ^ Lichtheim (1980) p. 159
  128. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 401
  129. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 403
  130. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 405
  131. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 406–07
  132. ^ "Music in Ancient Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  133. ^ "4,000-Year-Old Board Game Called 58 Holes Discovered in Azerbaijan". Mysterious Universe. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  134. ^ Metcalfe, Tom; December 10, Live Science Contributor |; ET, 2018 07:23am. "16 of the Most Interesting Ancient Board and Dice Games". Live Science. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  135. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 126
  136. ^ "The Cambridge Ancient History: II Part I, The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c. 1800–13380 B.C.", Edited I.E.S Edwards–C.JGadd–N.G.L Hammond-E.Sollberger, Cambridge at the University Press, p. 380, 1973, ISBN 0-521-08230-7
  137. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 399–400
  138. ^ Clarke (1990) pp. 94–97
  139. ^ Badawy (1968) p. 50
  140. ^ "Types of temples in ancient Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  141. ^ Dodson (1991) p. 23
  142. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Ikram, Salima (2008). The Tomb in Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. pp. 218, 275–76. ISBN 978-0-500-05139-9.
  143. ^ Robins (1997) p. 29
  144. ^ Robins (1997) p. 21
  145. ^ Robins (2001) p. 12
  146. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 105
  147. ^ a b James (2005) p. 122
  148. ^ Robins (1998) p. 74
  149. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 216
  150. ^ Robins (1998) p. 149
  151. ^ Robins (1998) p. 158
  152. ^ James (2005) p. 102
  153. ^ "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", edited by Donald B. Redford, p. 106, Berkley Books, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
  154. ^ James (2005) p. 117
  155. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 313
  156. ^ Allen (2000) pp. 79, 94–95
  157. ^ Wasserman, et al. (1994) pp. 150–53
  158. ^ "Mummies and Mummification: Old Kingdom". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  159. ^ "Mummies and Mummification: Late Period, Ptolemaic, Roman and Christian Period". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  160. ^ "Shabtis". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 24 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  161. ^ James (2005) p. 124
  162. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 245
  163. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 366–67
  164. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 96
  165. ^ Shaw, Garry J. (2009). "The Death of King Seqenenre Tao". Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 45.
  166. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 400
  167. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 177
  168. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 109
  169. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 195
  170. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 215
  171. ^ Filer (1995) p. 94
  172. ^ Filer (1995) pp. 78–80
  173. ^ Filer (1995) p. 21
  174. ^ Figures are given for adult life expectancy and do not reflect life expectancy at birth. Filer (1995) p. 25
  175. ^ Filer (1995) p. 39
  176. ^ Strouhal (1989) p. 243
  177. ^ Stroual (1989) pp. 244–46
  178. ^ Stroual (1989) p. 250
  179. ^ Pećanac M; Janjić Z; Komarcević A; Pajić M; Dobanovacki D; Misković SS (May–June 2013). "Burns treatment in ancient times". Medicinski Pregled. 66 (5–6): 263–67. 10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00603-5. 23888738.
  180. ^ Filer (1995) p. 38
  181. ^ a b Schuster, Angela M.H. "This Old Boat", 11 December 2000. Archaeological Institute of America.
  182. ^ a b Shelley Wachsmann, Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant (Texas A&M University Press, 2009), p. 19.
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  186. ^ See Suez Canal.
  187. ^ Full version at Met Museum
  188. ^ Understanding of Egyptian mathematics is incomplete due to paucity of available material and lack of exhaustive study of the texts that have been uncovered. Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 13
  189. ^ Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 11
  190. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 222
  191. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 217
  192. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 218
  193. ^ Gardiner (1957) p. 197
  194. ^ a b Strouhal (1989) p. 241
  195. ^ Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 31
  196. ^ Kemp (1989) p. 138
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  203. ^ Tyldesley (2000) p. 14.
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  207. ^ Brier, Egyptian Mummies (1994), pp. 200–01.
  208. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 8
  209. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 10
  210. ^ El-Daly (2005) p. 112
  211. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 13
  212. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 100
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Antieke Egipte
Alemannisch: Altes Ägypten
العربية: مصر القديمة
aragonés: Antigo Echipto
asturianu: Antiguu Exiptu
azərbaycanca: Qədim Misir
تۆرکجه: اسکی میصر
Bân-lâm-gú: Kó͘-tāi Ai-ki̍p
башҡортса: Боронғо Мысыр
беларуская: Старажытны Егіпет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Старажытны Эгіпет
български: Древен Египет
Boarisch: Oids Egyptn
bosanski: Stari Egipat
brezhoneg: Henegipt
català: Antic Egipte
Cymraeg: Yr Hen Aifft
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Egétt antîg
español: Antiguo Egipto
Esperanto: Antikva Egiptio
estremeñu: Antíguu Egitu
Fiji Hindi: Purana Egypt
français: Égypte antique
furlan: Antîc Egjit
贛語: 古埃及
한국어: 고대 이집트
հայերեն: Հին Եգիպտոս
hrvatski: Drevni Egipat
Bahasa Indonesia: Mesir Kuno
interlingua: Egypto ancian
italiano: Antico Egitto
қазақша: Ежелгі Мысыр
Kiswahili: Misri ya Kale
latviešu: Senā Ēģipte
lietuvių: Senovės Egiptas
Limburgs: Aad Egypte
Lingua Franca Nova: Egipte antica
македонски: Древен Египет
მარგალური: ჯვეში ეგვიპტე
Bahasa Melayu: Mesir Purba
Minangkabau: Masia Kuno
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gū Ăi-gĭk
Mirandés: Antigo Eigito
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရှေးဟောင်းအီဂျစ်
Nederlands: Oude Egypte
Nedersaksies: Olle Egypte
नेपाल भाषा: प्राचीन मिस्र
Napulitano: Antico Naggitto
нохчийн: Шира Мисар
Nordfriisk: Ual Egypten
norsk nynorsk: Egypt i oldtida
occitan: Egipte antica
олык марий: Акрет Египет
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qadimgi Misr
پنجابی: پرانا مصر
Перем Коми: Важ Египет
Plattdüütsch: Oolt Ägypten
português: Antigo Egito
română: Egiptul Antic
Runa Simi: Mawk'a Ihiptu
русиньскый: Старовікый Еґіпет
Gagana Samoa: Le Malo o Aikupito
sicilianu: Eggittu anticu
Simple English: Ancient Egypt
سنڌي: قديم مصر
slovenčina: Staroveký Egypt
slovenščina: Stari Egipt
کوردی: میسری کۆن
српски / srpski: Стари Египат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Stari Egipat
татарча/tatarça: Борынгы Мисыр
тоҷикӣ: Мисри Қадим
Türkçe: Antik Mısır
Türkmençe: Gadymy Müsür
اردو: قدیم مصر
Vahcuengh: Guj Aigib
vèneto: Antico Egito
vepsän kel’: Amuine Egipt
Tiếng Việt: Ai Cập cổ đại
文言: 古埃及
Winaray: Hadton Ehipto
吴语: 古埃及
粵語: 古埃及
žemaitėška: Senuobės Egėpts
中文: 古埃及