Ancient Egypt | notes

Notes

  1. ^ "Chronology". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 16 March 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  2. ^ Dodson (2004) p. 46
  3. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 217
  4. ^ James (2005) p. 8
  5. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 6–7
  6. ^ a b c d e Ward, Cheryl. "World's Oldest Planked Boats", inArchaeology (Volume 54, Number 3, May/June 2001). Archaeological Institute of America.
  7. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 153
  8. ^ James (2005) p. 84
  9. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 17, 67–69
  10. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 17
  11. ^ Choice Cuts: Meat Production in Ancient Egypt. University of Cambridge. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-6831-745-9. 1997140867. 60255819. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  12. ^ Hayes (1964) p. 220
  13. ^ Childe, V. Gordon (1953), New Light on the Most Ancient Near East, (Praeger Publications)
  14. ^ Barbara G. Aston, James A. Harrell, Ian Shaw (2000). Paul T. Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. "Stone," in Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology, Cambridge, 5–77, pp. 46–47. Also note: Barbara G. Aston (1994). "Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessels," Studien zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altägyptens 5, Heidelberg, pp. 23–26. (See on-line posts: [1] and [2].)
  15. ^ Patai, Raphael (1998), Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times (Princeton Uni Press)
  16. ^ "Chronology of the Naqada Period". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  17. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 61
  18. ^ "Faience in different Periods". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  19. ^ Allen (2000) p. 1
  20. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 6
  21. ^ Clayton (1994) pp. 12–13
  22. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 70
  23. ^ "Early Dynastic Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  24. ^ Robins (1997) p. 32
  25. ^ James (2005) p. 40
  26. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 102
  27. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 116–7
  28. ^ Fekri Hassan. "The Fall of the Old Kingdom". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  29. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 69
  30. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 120
  31. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 146
  32. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 29
  33. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 148
  34. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 79
  35. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 158
  36. ^ Shaw (2002) pp. 179–82
  37. ^ Robins (1997) p. 90
  38. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 188
  39. ^ a b Ryholt (1997) p. 310
  40. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 189
  41. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 224
  42. ^ Clayton (1994) pp. 104–107
  43. ^ James (2005) p. 48
  44. ^ Bleiberg (editor), Edward (2005). "Ancient Egypt 2675-332 BCE: Architecture and Design". Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. 1.
  45. ^ Aldred (1988) p. 259
  46. ^ Cline (2001) p. 273
  47. ^ With his two principal wives and large harem, Ramesses II sired more than 100 children. Clayton (1994) p. 146
  48. ^ Tyldesley (2001) pp. 76–7
  49. ^ Killebrew 2013, p. 2. Quote: "First coined in 1881 by the French Egyptologist G. Maspero (1896), the somewhat misleading term "Sea Peoples" encompasses the ethnonyms Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Teresh, Eqwesh, Denyen, Sikil / Tjekker, Weshesh, and Peleset (Philistines). [Footnote: The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as originating from "islands" (tables 1-2; Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.g., Drews 1993, 57 for a summary). The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term. It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill (see, e.g., Sandars 1978; Redford 1992, 243, n. 14; for a recent review of the primary and secondary literature, see Woudhuizen 2006). Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks.]"
  50. ^ The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C., Robert Drews, p48–61 Quote: "The thesis that a great "migration of the Sea Peoples" occurred ca. 1200 B.C. is supposedly based on Egyptian inscriptions, one from the reign of Merneptah and another from the reign of Ramesses III. Yet in the inscriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist (Wolfgang Helck) recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun." Thus the migration hypothesis is based not on the inscriptions themselves but on their interpretation."
  51. ^ James (2005) p. 54
  52. ^ Cerny (1975) p. 645
  53. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 345
  54. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 358
  55. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 383
  56. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 385
  57. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 405
  58. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 411
  59. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 418
  60. ^ James (2005) p. 62
  61. ^ James (2005) p. 63
  62. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 426
  63. ^ a b Shaw (2002) p. 422
  64. ^ Shaw (2003) p. 431
  65. ^ "The Church in Ancient Society", Henry Chadwick, p. 373, Oxford University Press US, 2001, ISBN 0-19-924695-5
  66. ^ "Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D 100–400", Ramsay MacMullen, p. 63, Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-300-03216-1
  67. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 445
  68. ^ a b c d Manuelian (1998) p. 358
  69. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 363
  70. ^ "Egypt: Coins of the Ptolemies". University College London. 2002. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  71. ^ Meskell (2004) p. 23
  72. ^ a b c Manuelian (1998) p. 372
  73. ^ Walbank (1984) p. 125
  74. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 383
  75. ^ James (2005) p. 136
  76. ^ Billard (1978) p. 109
  77. ^ "Social classes in ancient Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  78. ^ a b c "Women's Legal Rights in Ancient Egypt". University of Chicago, 2004. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  79. ^ Slavery in Ancient Egyptfrom http://www.reshafim.org.il. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  80. ^ Oakes (2003) p. 472
  81. ^ McDowell (1999) p. 168
  82. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 361
  83. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 514
  84. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 506
  85. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 510
  86. ^ Nicholson (2000) pp. 577 and 630
  87. ^ a b Strouhal (1989) p. 117
  88. ^ a b c Manuelian (1998) p. 381
  89. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 409
  90. ^ Heptner, V. G., Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Lion". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 83–95.
  91. ^ Oakes (2003) p. 229
  92. ^ Greaves (1929) p. 123
  93. ^ Lucas (1962) p. 413
  94. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 28
  95. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Sulfur. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. A. Jorgensen and C.J. Cleveland, National Council for Science and the environment, Washington DC Archived 28 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  96. ^ Scheel (1989) p. 14
  97. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 166
  98. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 51
  99. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 72
  100. ^ Naomi Porat and Edwin van den Brink (editor), "An Egyptian Colony in Southern Palestine During the Late Predynastic to Early Dynastic," in The Nile Delta in Transition: 4th to 3rd Millennium BC (1992), pp. 433–440.
  101. ^ Naomi Porat, "Local Industry of Egyptian Pottery in Southern Palestine During the Early Bronze I Period," in Bulletin of the Egyptological, Seminar 8 (1986/1987), pp. 109–129. See also University College London web post, 2000.
  102. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 322
  103. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 145
  104. ^ Harris (1990) p. 13
  105. ^ Loprieno (1995b) p. 2137
  106. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 161
  107. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 162
  108. ^ Loprieno (1995b) p. 2137–38
  109. ^ Vittman (1991) pp. 197–227
  110. ^ Loprieno (1995a) p. 46
  111. ^ Loprieno (1995a) p. 74
  112. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 175
  113. ^ Allen (2000) pp. 67, 70, 109
  114. ^ Loprieno (2005) p. 2147
  115. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 173
  116. ^ Allen (2000) p. 13
  117. ^ Loprieno (1995a) pp. 10–26
  118. ^ Allen (2000) p. 7
  119. ^ Loprieno (2004) p. 166
  120. ^ El-Daly (2005) p. 164
  121. ^ Allen (2000) p. 8
  122. ^ Strouhal (1989) p. 235
  123. ^ Lichtheim (1975) p. 11
  124. ^ Lichtheim (1975) p. 215
  125. ^ "Wisdom in Ancient Israel", John Day, /John Adney Emerton, /Robert P. Gordon/ Hugh Godfrey/Maturin Williamson, p23, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-62489-4
  126. ^ Lichtheim (1980) p. 159
  127. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 401
  128. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 403
  129. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 405
  130. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 406–7
  131. ^ "Music in Ancient Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  132. ^ Manuelian (1998) p. 126
  133. ^ "The Cambridge Ancient History: II Part I, The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c. 1800 – 13380 B.C", Edited I.E.S Edwards–C.JGadd–N.G.L Hammond-E.Sollberger, Cambridge at the University Press, p. 380, 1973, ISBN 0-521-08230-7
  134. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 399–400
  135. ^ Clarke (1990) pp. 94–7
  136. ^ Badawy (1968) p. 50
  137. ^ "Types of temples in ancient Egypt". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  138. ^ Dodson (1991) p. 23
  139. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Ikram, Salima (2008). The Tomb in Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. pp. 218, 275–276. ISBN 978-0-500-05139-9.
  140. ^ Robins (1997) p. 29
  141. ^ Robins (1997) p. 21
  142. ^ Robins (2001) p. 12
  143. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 105
  144. ^ a b James (2005) p. 122
  145. ^ Robins (1998) p. 74
  146. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 216
  147. ^ Robins (1998) p. 149
  148. ^ Robins (1998) p. 158
  149. ^ James (2005) p. 102
  150. ^ "The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", edited by Donald B. Redford, p. 106, Berkley Books, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
  151. ^ James (2005) p. 117
  152. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 313
  153. ^ Allen (2000) pp. 79, 94–5
  154. ^ Wasserman, et al. (1994) pp. 150–3
  155. ^ "Mummies and Mummification: Old Kingdom". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  156. ^ "Mummies and Mummification: Late Period, Ptolemaic, Roman and Christian Period". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 30 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  157. ^ "Shabtis". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Archived from the original on 24 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  158. ^ James (2005) p. 124
  159. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 245
  160. ^ Manuelian (1998) pp. 366–67
  161. ^ Clayton (1994) p. 96
  162. ^ Shaw, Garry J. (2009). "The Death of King Seqenenre Tao". Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 45.
  163. ^ Shaw (2002) p. 400
  164. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 177
  165. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 109
  166. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 195
  167. ^ Nicholson (2000) p. 215
  168. ^ Filer (1995) p. 94
  169. ^ Filer (1995) pp. 78–80
  170. ^ Filer (1995) p. 21
  171. ^ Figures are given for adult life expectancy and do not reflect life expectancy at birth. Filer (1995) p. 25
  172. ^ Filer (1995) p. 39
  173. ^ Strouhal (1989) p. 243
  174. ^ Stroual (1989) pp. 244–46
  175. ^ Stroual (1989) p. 250
  176. ^ Pećanac M; Janjić Z; Komarcević A; Pajić M; Dobanovacki D; Misković SS (May–Jun 2013). "Burns treatment in ancient times". Medicinski Pregled. 66 (5–6): 263–7. 10.1016/s0264-410x(02)00603-5. 23888738.
  177. ^ Filer (1995) p. 38
  178. ^ a b Schuster, Angela M.H. "This Old Boat", 11 December 2000. Archaeological Institute of America.
  179. ^ a b Shelley Wachsmann, Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant (Texas A&M University Press, 2009), p. 19.
  180. ^ a b "Egypt's Ancient Fleet: Lost for Thousands of Years, Discovered in a Desolate Cave". Discover Magazine.
  181. ^ "Most Ancient Port, Hieroglyphic Papyri Found". DNews.
  182. ^ a b Shea, William H. "A Date for the Recently Discovered Eastern Canal of Egypt", in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research',' No. 226 (April 1977), pp. 31–38.
  183. ^ See Suez Canal.
  184. ^ Full version at Met Museum
  185. ^ Understanding of Egyptian mathematics is incomplete due to paucity of available material and lack of exhaustive study of the texts that have been uncovered. Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 13
  186. ^ Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 11
  187. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 222
  188. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 217
  189. ^ Clarke (1990) p. 218
  190. ^ Gardiner (1957) p. 197
  191. ^ a b Strouhal (1989) p. 241
  192. ^ Imhausen et al. (2007) p. 31
  193. ^ Kemp (1989) p. 138
  194. ^ Marincola, John (2001). Greek Historians. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-19-922501-9.
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  196. ^ Boedeker, Deborah (2000). "Herodotus' genre(s)". In Mary Depew & Dirk Obbink. Matrices of Genre: Authors, Canons, and Society. Harvard University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-674-03420-4.
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  199. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 8
  200. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 10
  201. ^ El-Daly (2005) p. 112
  202. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 13
  203. ^ Siliotti (1998) p. 100
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Antieke Egipte
Alemannisch: Altes Ägypten
العربية: مصر القديمة
aragonés: Antigo Echipto
asturianu: Antiguu Exiptu
azərbaycanca: Qədim Misir
تۆرکجه: اسکی میصر
Bân-lâm-gú: Kó͘-tāi Ai-ki̍p
башҡортса: Боронғо Мысыр
беларуская: Старажытны Егіпет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Старажытны Эгіпет
български: Древен Египет
Boarisch: Oids Egyptn
bosanski: Stari Egipat
brezhoneg: Henegipt
català: Antic Egipte
Cymraeg: Yr Hen Aifft
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Egétt antîg
español: Antiguo Egipto
Esperanto: Antikva Egiptio
estremeñu: Antíguu Egitu
Fiji Hindi: Purana Egypt
français: Égypte antique
furlan: Antîc Egjit
贛語: 古埃及
한국어: 고대 이집트
հայերեն: Հին Եգիպտոս
hrvatski: Drevni Egipat
Bahasa Indonesia: Mesir Kuno
interlingua: Egypto ancian
italiano: Antico Egitto
Basa Jawa: Mesir Kuna
қазақша: Ежелгі Мысыр
Kiswahili: Misri ya Kale
latviešu: Senā Ēģipte
lietuvių: Senovės Egiptas
Limburgs: Aad Egypte
Lingua Franca Nova: Egipte antica
македонски: Древен Египет
მარგალური: ჯვეში ეგვიპტე
Bahasa Melayu: Mesir Purba
Baso Minangkabau: Masia Kuno
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gū Ăi-gĭk
Mirandés: Antigo Eigito
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရှေးဟောင်းအီဂျစ်
Nederlands: Oude Egypte
Nedersaksies: Olle Egypte
नेपाल भाषा: प्राचीन मिस्र
Napulitano: Antico Naggitto
нохчийн: Шира Мисар
Nordfriisk: Ual Egypten
norsk nynorsk: Egypt i oldtida
occitan: Egipte antica
олык марий: Акрет Египет
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qadimgi Misr
پنجابی: پرانا مصر
Перем Коми: Важ Египет
Plattdüütsch: Oolt Ägypten
português: Antigo Egito
română: Egiptul Antic
Runa Simi: Mawk'a Ihiptu
русиньскый: Старовікый Еґіпет
Gagana Samoa: Le Malo o Aikupito
sicilianu: Eggittu anticu
Simple English: Ancient Egypt
سنڌي: قديم مصر
slovenčina: Staroveký Egypt
slovenščina: Stari Egipt
کوردی: میسری کۆن
српски / srpski: Стари Египат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Stari Egipat
татарча/tatarça: Борынгы Мисыр
тоҷикӣ: Мисри Қадим
Türkçe: Antik Mısır
Türkmençe: Gadymy Müsür
اردو: قدیم مصر
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vèneto: Antico Egito
vepsän kel’: Amuine Egipt
Tiếng Việt: Ai Cập cổ đại
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粵語: 古埃及
žemaitėška: Senuobės Egėpts
中文: 古埃及