Participating National Olympic Committees
Participating countries, those making their début are shown in blue.
Number of athletes per country
A total of 67 nations competed in the 1956 Olympics. Eight countries made their Olympic debuts: Cambodia (only competed in the equestrian events in Stockholm), Ethiopia, Fiji, Kenya, Liberia, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo (modern-day Sabah of Malaysia), and Uganda. Athletes from East Germany and West Germany competed together as the United Team of Germany, an arrangement that would last until 1968.
For the first time, the team of Republic of China effectively represented only Taiwan.
Five nations competed in the equestrian events in Stockholm, but did not attend the Games in Melbourne. Egypt did not compete in Melbourne due to the Suez Crisis, whilst the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland all boycotted the Melbourne Olympics in protest at the Soviet invasion of Hungary.