Participating National Olympic Committees
Participating countries, those making their début are shown in blue.
Number of athletes per country
A total of 67 nations competed in Melbourne. Cambodia (that competed only in the equestrian events in Stockholm), Ethiopia, Fiji, Kenya, Liberia, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo (modern-day Sabah of Malaysia), and Uganda made their Olympic debut. Athletes from East Germany and West Germany competed together as the United Team of Germany, an arrangement that would last until 1968.
For the first time the team of Republic of China effectively represented only Taiwan.
Egypt did not compete in Melbourne due to the Suez Crisis, whilst Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland all boycotted the Australian event in protest at the Soviet invasion of Hungary.