↑Imamura E (1997). «Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan». Acta Paediatr Jpn39 (4): 403-5.
10.1111/j.1442-200x.1997.tb03605.x. A study of phimosis prevalence in over 4,500 Japanese children reporting that over a third of uncircumcised had a nonretractile foreskin by age 3 years.
↑Van Howe RS (1998). «Cost-effective treatment of phimosis». Pediatrics102 (4): e43-e43.
10.1542/peds.102.4.e43. A review of estimated costs and complications of 3 phimosis treatments (topical steroids, praeputioplasty, and surgical circumcision). The review concludes that topical steroids should be tried first, and praeputioplasty has advantages over surgical circumcision. This article also provides a good discussion of the difficulty distinguishing pathological from physiological phimosis in young children and alleges inflation of phimosis statistics for purposes of securing insurance coverage for post-neonatal circumcision in the United States.