Wafaranki

Mahali pa Wafaranki katika karne ya 3.
Kazi bora ya usanii majengo wa Kikarolo: kanisa palatina huko Aachen, Ujerumani.

Wafaranki walikuwa Wagermanik waliovamia Dola la Roma na hatimaye kujitokeza kama kabila lenye nguvu kuliko yote ya aina hiyo.

Nchi ya Ufaransa imepata jina lake kutoka kwao, ambao waliitawala na kutoka huko wakaeneza himaya yao juu ya sehemu kubwa ya Ulaya Magharibi, wakizuia Waislamu wasiweze kutoka Hispania.

Ushirikiano wao na Ma papa, kama kabila la kwanza la Kijerumani kuingia Kanisa Katoliki bila kupitia kwanza Uario, ni kati ya mambo yaliyoathiri zaidi historia ya Ulaya.

Kilele cha ustawi wao kilifikiwa chini ya mfalme Karolo Mkuu aliyetiwa na Papa Leo III taji la Kaizari wa Roma tarehe 25 Desemba 800. Ndio mwanzo wa Dola Takatifu la Roma.

Marejeo

Vyanzo

  • Fredegar
    • Fredegarius; John Michael Wallace-Hadrill [1960] (1981). Fredegarii chronicorum liber quartus cum continuationibus (in Latin, English opposite). Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. 
    • Unknown; Bachrach, Bernard S. (Translator) (1973). Liber Historiae Francorum. Coronado Press. 
    • Woodruff, Jane Ellen; Fredegar (1987). The Historia Epitomata (third book) of the Chronicle of Fredegar: an annotated translation and historical analysis of interpolated material, Thesis (Ph. D.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. 
  • Gregory of Tours
    • Gregory of Tours. Libri Historiarum (Latin). The Classics Page: The Latin Library. thelatinlibrary.com.
    • History of the Franks: Books I-X (Extended Selections). New York: Columbia University Press; Fordham University. 
    • Gregory; O. M. Dalton (Translator) (1967). The History of the Franks. Farnborough: Gregg Press. 
  • Ammianus Marcellinus
    • Roman History. London; Internet: Bohn; tertullian.org. 
  • Procopius

Marejeo mengine

  • Bachrach, Bernard S. Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971. ISBN 0-8166-0621-8
  • Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe 300–1000. London: MacMillan, 1991.
  • Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany: the Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-504458-4
  • Geipel, John [1969] (1970). The Europeans: The People - Today and Yesterday: Their Origins and Interrelations. New York: PEGASUS: a division of Western Publishing Company, Inc. 
  • Greenwood, Thomas (1836). The First Book of the History of the Germans: Barbaric period. London: Longman, Rees, Orne, and Co. .
  • Howorth, Henry H. (1884). "XVII. The Ethnology of Germany (Part VI). The Varini, Varangians and Franks. - Section II". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (London: Trübner & Co.) 13: 213–239. 10.2307/2841727
     .
  • James, Edward (1988). The Franks, The Peoples of Europe. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-17936-4. 
  • Lewis, Archibald R. "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550–751." Speculum, Vol. 51, No 3 (July 1976), pp 381–410.
  • McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987. London: Longman, 1983. ISBN 0-582-49005-7.
  • Murray, Archibald Callander, and Goffart, Walter A. After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1998.
  • Nixon, C. E. V. and Rodgers, Barbara. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors. Berkeley, 1994.
  • Noske, Roland (2007). Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: Benjamins. .
  • Perry, Walter Copland (1857). The Franks, from Their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. 
  • Pfister, M. Christian (1911). The Cambridge Medieval History Volume I: The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms. London: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Schutz, Herbert. The Germanic Realms in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe, 400–750. American University Studies, Series IX: History, Vol. 196. New York: Peter Lang, 2000.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-Haired Kings. London: Butler & tanner Ltd, 1962.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Barbarian West. London: Hutchinson, 1970.
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