Tingkat kabébasan

Frase "tingkat kebebasan" digunakeun dina 3 cabang elmu anu béda nyaéta: dina fisika jeung physical chemistry, dina mechanical jeung aeronautical engineering, sarta dina statistik. Tiluannana dihubungkeun sacara sajarah jeung ngaliwatan matematik nyaéta konsép dimensionality, sanajan tiluanana teu identik.

Fisika jeung kimia

Dina fisika jeung kimia, unggal mode mandiri tempat hiji partikel atawa sistim bisa gerak atawa ngarah disebut hiji darajat kabébasan. For a roughly dumbell-shaped hydrogen molecule, three such modes would be rotation (twirling), translation (hurtling through space) and vibration (the two dumbbell "balls" bouncing together and apart). According to the Equipartition Theorem of thermodynamics, in case of thermal equilibrium éach degree of freedom in every particle of a system will contain the same energy on average (equal to kT, the temperature of the system multiplied by the fundamental Boltzmann constant). However, thermal equilibrium can only be réached among interacting particles, a process called thermalization. According to quantum mechanics and more specifically Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the amount of energy within any degree of freedom is never zero, but is always at léast equal to the zero-point energy for that mode.

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