World War I

World War I
Date28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice)Treaty of Versailles signed 28 June 1919
LocationEurope, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South and North America

Allied victory


Allied (Entente) Powers
France France
United Kingdom British Empire
 Russia (1914–17)
 United States (1917–18)
 Romania (1916–18)
 Empire of Japan
 Greece (1917–18)
Portugal Portugal (1916–18)
 Montenegro (1914–16)

and others

Central Powers
 German Empire
 Ottoman Empire

 Bulgaria (1915–18)
Commanders and leaders

Leaders and commanders
France Raymond Poincaré
France Georges Clemenceau
France Ferdinand Foch
British Empire H. H. Asquith
British Empire David Lloyd George
British Empire Douglas Haig
Russian Empire Nicholas II
Russian Empire Nicholas Nikolaevich
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Antonio Salandra
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Vittorio Orlando
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Luigi Cadorna
United States Woodrow Wilson
United States John J. Pershing
Empire of Japan Emperor Taishō

and others

Leaders and commanders
German Empire Wilhelm II
German Empire Paul von Hindenburg
German Empire Erich Ludendorff
Austria-Hungary Franz Joseph I
Austria-Hungary Karl I
Austria-Hungary Conrad von Hötzendorf
Ottoman Empire Mehmed V
Ottoman Empire Mehmed VI
Ottoman Empire Three Pashas
Kingdom of Bulgaria Ferdinand I
Kingdom of Bulgaria Nikola Zhekov

and others

Russian Empire 12,000,000

British Empire 8,841,541[2][3]

France 8,660,000[4]

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) 5,093,140

United States 4,743,826

Romania 1,234,000

Empire of Japan 800,000

Kingdom of Serbia 707,343

Belgium 380,000

Greece 250,000

Portugal 200,000

Montenegro 50,000

Total: 42,959,850

Central Powers[1]

German Empire 13,250,000

Austria-Hungary 7,800,000

Ottoman Empire 2,998,321

Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000

Total: 25,248,321
Casualties and losses
Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA .
Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA .
Map of Europe at the start of World War I. Turkey refers to the Ottoman Empire

World War I (or the First World War) was a global war which began on July 28, 1914 and lasted until November 11, 1918. The war lasted exactly four years, three months and 14 days.

Most of the fighting was in Europe, but soldiers from many other countries took part, and it changed the colonial empires of the European powers. Before World War II began in 1939, World War I was called the Great War, the World War or the 'war to end all wars'. 135 countries took part in World War I, and nearly 10 million people died while fighting.[5]

World War I was fought by most of the countries of Europe. The actual fighting was on many different fronts. The Western Front was where most of the fighting between Germany and the Allies happened. Most of the fighting here was trench warfare.

The Eastern Front was fought in Central and Eastern Europe. Fighting here was not trench warfare but mobile warfare due to the size of the front. Much fighting happened in the Middle Eastern Front and the Italian Front. Fighting also took place in Africa, China, and at sea as well as in the air.

The war was ended by the signing of many different treaties, the most important being the Treaty of Versailles.

World War I was the first major war where tanks, airplanes, and submarines or (U-boats) were important weapons.


In the Black Hand organization, one person who strongly supported Serbian power sent men to kill Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. They all failed to kill him with grenades while he passed through a large crowd but one of these men, a Serbian student named Gavrilo Princip, shot him and his pregnant wife with a pistol.

Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the assassination. Germany supported Austria-Hungary and promised full support should it come to war. Austria-Hungary sent a July Ultimatum to Serbia, listing 10 very strict conditions, possibly because they wanted an excuse to start the war. Serbia agreed to most of the ten things on the list, but not all of them. Austria-Hungary then declared war on Serbia. This quickly led to a full-scale war.[6] Both countries' allies became involved in the war in a matter of days.

Russia joined the war on Serbia's side because the people of Serbia were Slavic, like Russia, and the Slavic countries had agreed to help each other if they were attacked. Since Russia is a large country it had to move soldiers closer to the war, but Germany feared that Russia's soldiers would also attack Germany. Russia did not like Germany because of things Germany had done in the past to become stronger. Germany declared war on Russia, and began to carry out a plan created long before to fight a war in Europe. Because Germany is in the middle of Europe, Germany could not attack to the east towards Russia without weakening itself in the west, towards France. Germany's plan involved quickly defeating France in the west before Russia was ready to fight, and then moving her armies to the east to face Russia. Germany could not quickly invade France directly, because France had put a lot of forts on the border, so Germany invaded the neighboring country of Belgium to then invade France through the undefended French/Belgian border. Great Britain then joined the war because Great Britain had agreed to help Belgium if it were ever attacked by someone else.

Soon most of Europe became involved.

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Erster Weltkrieg
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Першая сусьветная вайна
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Prémma guèra mundièl
English: World War I
Esperanto: Unua mondmilito
estremeñu: I Guerra Mundial
Fiji Hindi: World War I
Gàidhlig: An Cogadh Mòr
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thi-yit-chhṳ Sṳ-kie Thai-chan
Bahasa Indonesia: Perang Dunia I
Basa Jawa: Perang Donya I
къарачай-малкъар: Биринчи дуния къазауат
Lëtzebuergesch: Éischte Weltkrich
مازِرونی: جهونی جنگ اول
Bahasa Melayu: Perang Dunia Pertama
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ပထမ ကမ္ဘာစစ်
Dorerin Naoero: Eaket Eb I
Nedersaksies: Eerste Wealdkrieg
नेपाल भाषा: तःहताः १
Nordfriisk: Iarst Wäältkrich
norsk nynorsk: Den fyrste verdskrigen
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Birinchi jahon urushi
Patois: Wol Waar I
Plattdüütsch: Eerste Weltkrieg
qırımtatarca: Birinci Cian cenki
slovenščina: Prva svetovna vojna
Soomaaliga: Dagaalkii koowaad
српски / srpski: Први светски рат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Prvi svjetski rat
Basa Sunda: Perang Dunya I
Türkmençe: Birinji jahan urşy
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: بىرىنچى دۇنيا ئۇرۇشى
vepsän kel’: Ezmäine mail'man voin
Volapük: Volakrig balid
žemaitėška: Pėrma svieta vaina