Vienna

Vienna
Wien
Capital city
Schönbrunn Palace
Vienna City Hall, Rathaus
Austrian ParliamentSt. Stephen's Cathedral
Hofburg Palace
Descending, from top: Schönbrunn Palace, City Hall, Austrian Parliament, St. Stephen's Cathedral, and Hofburg Palace
Flag of Vienna
Flag
Official seal of Vienna
Seal
Coat of arms of Vienna
Coat of arms
Location of Vienna in Austria
Location of Vienna in Austria
Coordinates: 48°12′N 16°22′E / 48°12′N 16°22′E / 48.200; 16.367
Country Austria
Government
 • Mayor and GovernorMichael Häupl (SPÖ)
 • Vice-Mayors
Area
 • Capital city (160.10 sq mi)
 • Land395.26 km2 (152.61 sq mi)
 • Water19.39 km2 (7.49 sq mi)
Elevation151 (Lobau) – 542 (Hermannskogel) m (495–1,778 ft)
Population (1. January 2017)
 • Capital city1,867,960 Increase
 • Rank1st in Austria (7th in EU)
 • Density4,326.1/km2 (11,205/sq mi)
 • Metro2,600,000
 • Ethnicity[1][2]61.2% Austrian
38.8% Other
 Statistik Austria,[3] VCÖ – Mobilität mit Zukunft[4]
Demonym(s)Viennese, Wiener
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code1010–1423, 1600, 1601, 1810, 1901
Vehicle registrationW
 - Nominal GDP (2015)[5]€86.5 billion/ US$96 billion
 - GDP per capita (2015)[6]€47,700/ US$52,500[7]
GeoTLDwww.wien.gv.at
Logo City of Vienna.svg

Official nameHistoric Centre of Vienna
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv, vi
Designated2001 (25th 1033
UNESCO RegionEurope and North America
Endangered2017 (2017)–present[8]

Vienna (German: Wien) is the capital city of Austria.

It is in the east of the country on the river Danube. More than 1,800,000 people live there (2016). It is the largest city in Austria. It is also an administrative district (Bundesland) of its own.

Before World War I, it was the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History

The history of the city goes back to the Roman Empire. The Romans started a military camp called Vindobona.[9] The camp was in today's first district on the Danube river. The name came from the Celts, so there was probably a Celtic settlement before the Roman invasion. The Romans stayed until the 5th century. In medieval times, the settlement was still in use. The present name was mentioned in 881 in the Salzburger Annalen, where a battle ad weniam is mentioned.

In 976 the House of Babenberg became rulers of the area. They made Vienna their capital in 1155. Vienna was already an important city. In 1156, Austria became a Duchy, and Vienna was where the Duke who ruled the Duchy lived. In 1221, Vienna got municipal rights. It Is the second oldest city in Austria ( Enns, in Upper Austria, is the oldest).

In 1278, the Duchy came to the Habsburg family. Rudolf IV started the university in 1365 and while he was duke the nave of the Gothic St. Stephan's Cathedral was built. Quarrels within the Hapsburg family caused an economic decline in Vienna. In 1438, Vienna became the residence of the Holy Roman Emperor.

During the time of the reformation Vienna was a Protestant city, but in the times of the Counter Reformation, Austria and Vienna were mostly Roman Catholic.

In 1529, Vienna was first besieged by the army of the Ottoman Empire, which had a border only 150 km east of Vienna. This hurt Vienna economically, but led to people fortifying the city (making it stronger). After a second siege, the Ottoman Empire could not take Vienna, and the city started getting larger.

During the baroque era, Vienna was rebuilt. Many residences for the nobility were built. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was an important architect in Vienna.

At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century Vienna was the home of important composers like Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert.

After the revolution in 1848 Franz Joseph I. became emperor of the Austrian Empire, which was founded in 1806 after the liquidation of the Holy Roman Empire. He ruled till 1916. Vienna became a center of arts, culture and architecture. The city grew because the suburbs became part of the city. After 1858 the walls of the city were destroyed and the Ringstraße replaced them. Along that street houses of the rich citizens were built, as were public buildings like the city hall and the Burg theatre. The industrialisation started at the beginning of the century and made more people live there. In 1870, Vienna had one million people, and in 1910, two million people. With the creation of a large working class and poverty in Vienna the Labour Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei) became stronger.

Karl Lueger was the most important mayor in the time of Emperor Franz Josef. During his time important community plans were realized that made Vienna a modern city. However, Lueger was a radical anti-Semite. He was admired by the young Adolf Hitler, who spent some years before the First World War in Vienna. At this time, Vienna was an important place for the arts. Composers like Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Ernst Krenek were important for the development of modern music. Also the psychoanalysis was founded in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. Also the so-called Jugendstil in arts was part of Vienna's modern arts scene. Founding fathers of modern architecture lived and worked also in Vienna at this time (Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos)

After the end of the First World War the Austrian-Hungary Empire was dissolved and Vienna became capital of the Republic of Austria. In 1938, Austria was occupied by Germany. In Vienna the suffering of the Jewish inhabitants began. A lot of their properties was given to Austrians (Arisierung).

After the Second World War, which destroyed 20% of Vienna's buildings, Vienna was divided into four parts. The city was controlled by the allies like the other parts of Austria. In 1955 the state treaty between the allies and Austria was signed in Vienna's Belvedere. After that Vienna became an important city for international organisations. The first was 1957 the International Atomic Energy Organisation ( IAEO) and 1965 the OPEC followed. 1980 the Vienna International Center was opened and Vienna is now the third UN-city together with New York and Geneva.

Other Languages
Acèh: Wina
адыгабзэ: Венэ
Afrikaans: Wene
Akan: Vienna
Alemannisch: Wien
አማርኛ: ቪየና
Ænglisc: Uigenna
Аҧсшәа: Вена
العربية: فيينا
aragonés: Viena
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܒܝܝܢܐ
armãneashti: Viena
অসমীয়া: ভিয়েনা
asturianu: Viena
Avañe'ẽ: Viéna
авар: Вена
Aymar aru: Wien
azərbaycanca: Vyana
تۆرکجه: وین
bamanankan: Vienna
বাংলা: ভিয়েনা
Bân-lâm-gú: Wien
башҡортса: Вена
беларуская: Вена
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вена
Bikol Central: Vienna
Bislama: Vienna
български: Виена
Boarisch: Wean
བོད་ཡིག: ཝི་ཨེ་ན།
bosanski: Beč
brezhoneg: Vienna
буряад: Венэ
català: Viena
Чӑвашла: Вена
Cebuano: Viena
čeština: Vídeň
Chamoru: Vienna
Chi-Chewa: Vienna
chiShona: Vienna
corsu: Vienna
Cymraeg: Fienna
dansk: Wien
davvisámegiella: Wien
Deitsch: Wien
Deutsch: Wien
dolnoserbski: Wien
डोटेली: भियना
eesti: Viin
Ελληνικά: Βιέννη
English: Vienna
эрзянь: Вена ош
español: Viena
Esperanto: Vieno
estremeñu: Viena
euskara: Viena
eʋegbe: Vienna
فارسی: وین
Fiji Hindi: Vienna
føroyskt: Wien
Frysk: Wenen
furlan: Viene
Gaeilge: Vín
Gaelg: Veen
Gagauz: Vena
Gàidhlig: Vienna
galego: Viena
ГӀалгӀай: Вена
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Wien
한국어:
Hausa: Vienna
հայերեն: Վիեննա
हिन्दी: वियना
hornjoserbsce: Wien
hrvatski: Beč
Ido: Wien
Ilokano: Vienna
Bahasa Indonesia: Wina
interlingua: Vienna
Interlingue: Vienna
Ирон: Венæ
italiano: Vienna
עברית: וינה
Basa Jawa: Wina
Kabɩyɛ: Fɩyɛɛnɩ
kalaallisut: Wien
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವಿಯೆನ್ನ
къарачай-малкъар: Вена
ქართული: ვენა
қазақша: Вена
kernowek: Wien
Kiswahili: Vienna
коми: Вена
Kreyòl ayisyen: Vyèn
kurdî: Viyana
Кыргызча: Вена
кырык мары: Вена
Ladino: Viena
لۊری شومالی: ڤیٱن
Latina: Vindobona
latviešu: Vīne
Lëtzebuergesch: Wien
лезги: Вена
lietuvių: Viena
Ligure: Vienna
Limburgs: Wene
lingála: Viɛnɛ
Lingua Franca Nova: Wien
Livvinkarjala: Vena
lumbaart: Viena
magyar: Bécs
मैथिली: विएना
македонски: Виена
മലയാളം: വിയന്ന
Malti: Vjenna
Māori: Whiena
मराठी: व्हियेना
მარგალური: ვენა
مصرى: ڤيينا
مازِرونی: وین
Bahasa Melayu: Vienna
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Vienna
монгол: Вена
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဗီယင်နာမြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Vienna
Nederlands: Wenen
Nedersaksies: Wienen
नेपाली: भियना
नेपाल भाषा: भियना
日本語: ウィーン
нохчийн: Вена
Nordfriisk: Wien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Wienna
norsk: Wien
norsk nynorsk: Wien
Novial: Wien
олык марий: Вена
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଭିଏନା
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Vena (shahar)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵਿਆਨਾ
پنجابی: ویآنا
Papiamentu: Viena
پښتو: وين
Перем Коми: Вин
Piemontèis: Vien-a
Plattdüütsch: Wien (Stadt)
polski: Wiedeń
português: Viena
Qaraqalpaqsha: Vena
qırımtatarca: Viyana
română: Viena
Romani: Bech
rumantsch: Vienna
Runa Simi: Wien
русиньскый: Відень
русский: Вена
саха тыла: Вена
sardu: Vienna
Scots: Vienna
Seeltersk: Wien (Stääd)
Sesotho: Vienna
shqip: Vjena
sicilianu: Vienna
slovenčina: Viedeň
slovenščina: Dunaj
ślůnski: Wjedyń
Soomaaliga: Fiyena
کوردی: ڤیێنا
српски / srpski: Беч
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Beč
suomi: Wien
svenska: Wien
Tagalog: Vienna
தமிழ்: வியன்னா
tarandíne: Vienne
татарча/tatarça: Вена шәһәре
తెలుగు: వియన్నా
тоҷикӣ: Вена
Türkçe: Viyana
Türkmençe: Wena
Twi: Wien
тыва дыл: Вена
удмурт: Вена
українська: Відень
اردو: ویانا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Wyéna
vèneto: Viena
vepsän kel’: Ven
Tiếng Việt: Viên
Volapük: Wien
Võro: Viin
walon: Wîne
文言: 維也納
West-Vlams: Weenn
Winaray: Vienna
Wolof: Wiyen
吴语: 维也纳
ייִדיש: וויען
Yorùbá: Fienna
粵語: 維也納
Zazaki: Wiyana
žemaitėška: Viena
中文: 維也納