Uranium
English: Uranium

Uranium,  92U
Two hands in brown gloves holding a blotched gray disk with a number 2068 hand-written on it
General properties
Pronunciationm/ (AY-nee-əm)
Appearancesilvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)238.02891(3)[1]
Uranium in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson
Nd

U

(Uqh)
protactiniumuraniumneptunium
Atomic number (Z)92
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 7
Blockf-block
Element category  actinide
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 21, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1405.3 K ​(1132.2 °C, ​2070 °F)
Boiling point4404 K ​(4131 °C, ​7468 °F)
Density (near r.t.)19.1 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)17.3 g/cm3
Heat of fusion9.14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization417.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.665 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)232525642859323437274402
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1, +2, +3,[2] +4, +5, +6 (a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.38
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 597.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1420 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 156 pm
Covalent radius196±7 pm
Van der Waals radius186 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of uranium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structure ​orthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for uranium
Speed of sound thin rod3155 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion13.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity27.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity0.280 µΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Young's modulus208 GPa
Shear modulus111 GPa
Bulk modulus100 GPa
Poisson ratio0.23
Vickers hardness1960–2500 MPa
Brinell hardness2350–3850 MPa
CAS Number7440-61-1
History
Namingafter planet Uranus, itself named after Greek god of the sky Uranus
DiscoveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolationEugène-Melchior Péligot (1841)
Main isotopes of uranium
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
Usyn68.9 ySF
αTh
Utrace1.592×105 ySF
αTh
U0.005%2.455×105 ySF
αTh
235U0.720%7.04×108 ySF
αTh
Utrace2.342×107 ySF
αTh
U99.274%4.468×109 yαTh
SF
Pu
| references
A small amount of uranium in a glass dish

Uranium is a chemical element (a metal) on the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 92, which means that a uranium atom has 92 protons in its center, which is called a nucleus. Uranium that is dug out of the ground will be made from three different isotopes: three different types of uranium with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. Most of it is Uranium-238; uranium-235 is less common; uranium-234 is the rarest. Pitchblende is the main ore that is mined for uranium.

Uranium-235 can be used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons by making a nuclear chain reaction. This turns the uranium-235 into uranium-236 and splits the nucleus into two smaller nuclei. This makes two completely different elements with smaller atomic numbers. This process is called nuclear fission and creates lots of heat. This heat makes it very useful for making steam in nuclear reactors, or for making explosions with nuclear weapons. But most such weapons use Plutonium made from uranium-238. Uranium is a bit radioactive.

Uranium which has had its uranium-235 taken out of it is called depleted uranium. It is used in anti-tank weapons. Uranium can also be used as a dye for stained glass or pottery, which is how it was used before people found out that it was radioactive.

Radiation warning

Uranium is a dangerous substance. Because Uranium is radioactive it is often seen with the hazard sign for radioactive elements, a group of three triangles with curved outer edges pointing in towards the middle (as you can see on the left). Some people believe that Uranium is light green, and glows, due to the way it is depicted in many movies. However, this is not true. Uranium is a shiny white metal, but is usually seen in its oxide form which is black. In addition to being radioactive, uranium is a heavy metal and is chemically toxic.

  • references

References

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B.; Berglund, M.; Brand, W.A.; De Bièvre, P.; Gröning, M.; Holden, N.E.; Irrgeher, J. et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 88 (3): 265-91. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Morss, L.R.; Edelstein, N.M.; Fuger, J., eds. (2006). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Netherlands: Springer. ISBN 9048131464.
  3. Morss, L.R.; Edelstein, N.M.; Fuger, J., eds. (2006). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Netherlands: Springer. ISBN 9048131464.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Uraan
Alemannisch: Uran
አማርኛ: ዩራኒየም
العربية: يورانيوم
armãneashti: Uraniu
asturianu: Uraniu
azərbaycanca: Uranium
تۆرکجه: اورانیوم
Bân-lâm-gú: Uranium
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Уран (хімічны элемэнт)
भोजपुरी: यूरेनियम
български: Уран (елемент)
བོད་ཡིག: ཡུ་རེ་ནིམ།
bosanski: Uranij
brezhoneg: Uraniom
català: Urani
Cebuano: Uranyo
čeština: Uran (prvek)
chiShona: Yureniyamu
corsu: Uraniu
Cymraeg: Wraniwm
dansk: Uran
Deutsch: Uran
Diné bizaad: Łeetsoh
eesti: Uraan
Ελληνικά: Ουράνιο
English: Uranium
español: Uranio
Esperanto: Uranio
euskara: Uranio
فارسی: اورانیم
Fiji Hindi: Uranium
føroyskt: Uran
français: Uranium
Frysk: Uranium
furlan: Urani
Gaeilge: Úráiniam
Gaelg: Uraanium
Gàidhlig: Uranium
galego: Uranio
ગુજરાતી: યુરેનિયમ
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: युरेनियम
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Uranium
хальмг: Уранум
한국어: 우라늄
հայերեն: Ուրան (տարր)
हिन्दी: यूरेनियम
hrvatski: Uranij
Ido: Uranio
Bahasa Indonesia: Uranium
interlingua: Uranium
isiXhosa: I-uranium
íslenska: Úran
italiano: Uranio
עברית: אורניום
Jawa: Uranium
Kabɩyɛ: Ʊranɩyɔm
Kiswahili: Urani
Kreyòl ayisyen: Iranyòm
кырык мары: Уран (элемент)
Ladino: Uranio
Latina: Uranium
Lëtzebuergesch: Uran
Ligure: Urannio
Limburgs: Uranium
Livvinkarjala: Uruanu
la .lojban.: jinmrvurani
lumbaart: Uranio
magyar: Urán
македонски: Ураниум
മലയാളം: യുറേനിയം
मराठी: युरेनियम
Bahasa Melayu: Uranium
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iù (gĭng-sṳ̆k)
монгол: Уран
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ယူရေနီယမ်
Nederlands: Uranium
नेपाली: युरेनियम
नेपाल भाषा: युर्यानियम
日本語: ウラン
Nordfriisk: Uraan
norsk: Uran
norsk nynorsk: Uran
occitan: Urani
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ୟୁରାନିଅମ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Uran (kimyoviy unsur)
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਯੂਰੇਨੀਅਮ
پنجابی: یورینیم
پښتو: يورانيم
Patois: Yuurieniom
Перем Коми: Уран (ӧтувтор)
Piemontèis: Urani
Plattdüütsch: Uran
português: Urânio
română: Uraniu
Runa Simi: Uranyu
саха тыла: Ураниум
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱭᱩᱨᱮᱱᱤᱭᱟᱢ
संस्कृतम्: यूरेनियम
Scots: Uranium
Seeltersk: Uran
sicilianu: Uraniu
slovenščina: Uran
کوردی: یورانیۆم
српски / srpski: Уранијум
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Uranijum
Sunda: Uranium
suomi: Uraani
svenska: Uran
Tagalog: Uranyo
татарча/tatarça: Уран (химик элемент)
తెలుగు: యురేనియం
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏳᏪᏂᎥᎻ
Türkçe: Uranyum
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئۇران
vepsän kel’: Uran (himine element)
Tiếng Việt: Urani
文言:
Winaray: Uranyo
吴语:
ייִדיש: אוראניום
Yorùbá: Ùráníọ̀m
粵語:
中文: