The official date of the founding of the United States is July 4, 1776, when the second Continental Congress, representing the 13 British secessionists colonies, signed the Declaration of Independence. However, the structure of the Government had a big change in 1788 when the Articles of Confederation were replaced by the Constitution of the United States. The date on which each state adopted the Constitution tends to be taken as the date on which the state became part of the Union.
Civil War (1861–65)
As the nation gained new territory, it was divided on the subject of slavery. The northern states of the country opposed the slavery of African Americans and many of them had already been abolished. The southern states of the country said they needed slaves. The economy of the north grew industrially, while the south was growing on an agricultural basis. Following this division of economy and politics, the southern states decided to create a new independent nation, propitiating the beginning of the war by the northern states who did not recognize the right of secession. After the Civil War between the Confederate States (south) and the Union (north), slavery was abolished throughout the American territory.
After the Spanish–American War in 1898, the United States was slowly acquiring an ever-increasing influence in the world. After the first World War, and then the second, American influence on aspects such as economics, science, technology, and culture grew to new levels. Because of the Cold War and the political, ideological and social controversy that resulted, the role of military and international affairs grew in politics at that time. Important events were also held at that time, such as the civil rights movement in the 1960s, and the landing of Apollo 11 on the Moon in 1969.
- See also: September 11 attacks, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Iraq War, Great Recession, and
International military intervention against ISIL
A large cloud of dust surrounds the city of New York after the collapse of the Twin Towers after the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001.
Under President George H. W. Bush, the country took on a global dominant role worldwide, as in the Gulf War (1991). The longest economic expansion in modern American history, from March 1991 to March 2001, spanned the presidency of Bill Clinton and the
dot-com bubble. A civil lawsuit and a sex scandal led to his impeachment in 1998, although he managed to finish his period. The 2000 presidential elections, one of the most competitive in American history, they were settled by the Supreme Court: George W. Bush, son of George H. W. Bush, became president, even though he gained fewer votes than his opponent Al Gore.
On September 11, 2001, the terrorists of the Al-Qaeda group attacked the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City (which were destroyed) and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., in a series of attacks that ended the life of nearly three thousand people. In response, the Bush administration launched the "War on Terror." At the end of 2001, U.S. forces
invaded Afghanistan, toppled the Taliban government and destroyed Al-Qaeda's training camps. Taliban insurgents continue to fight a guerrilla war. In 2002, Bush began to push for a regime change to take place in Iraq. With NATO's lack of support and without a clear UN order for military intervention, Bush organized the
coalition of the willing; The coalition forces quickly invaded Iraq in 2003 and toppled the statue of dictator Saddam Hussein. The following year, Bush was re-elected as the most voted president in an election.
On November 4, 2008, during a global economic downturn, Barack Obama was elected president, having been the first African American to take office. In May 2011, American Special forces managed to kill Osama bin Laden, hiding in Pakistan. The following year, Barack Obama was re-elected. Under his second term, he led the
war against the Islamic State and restored diplomatic relations with Cuba.
On November 8, 2016, the Republican Party leader Donald Trump defeated former First Lady Hillary Clinton for presidency in an unusual election and whose plans have been described by political analysts as populist, protectionist and nationalist, assuming office on January 20, 2017.