Sun

The Sun Sun symbol.svg
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Observation data
Average distance
from Earth
1.496×108 km
8 min 19 s at light speed
Visual brightness (V)−26.74[1]
True brightness4.83[1]
Angular size31.6–32.7′[2]
AdjectiveSolar
Orbit and rotation
Average distance
from Milky Way center
≈ 2.7×1017 km
27,200 light-years
Velocity≈ 220 km/s (orbit around the center of the Milky Way)
≈ 20 km/s (relative to average velocity of other stars nearby)
≈ 370 km/s[3] (relative to the cosmic microwave background)
Obliquity7.25°[1]
(to the ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the galactic plane)
Rotation velocity7.189×103 km/h[4]
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius696,342±65 km[5]
109 × Earth[4]
Equatorial circumference4.379×106 km[4]
109 × Earth[4]
Flattening9×10−6
Surface area6.09×1012 km2[4]
12,000 × Earth[4]
Volume1.41×1018 km3[4]
1,300,000 × Earth
Mass(1.98855±0.00025)×1030 kg[1]
333,000 × Earth[1]
Average density1.408 g/cm3[1][4][6]
0.255 × Earth[1][4]
Surface gravity274.0 m/s2[1]
27.94 g
27,542.29 cgs
28 × Earth[4]
Escape velocity
(from the surface)
617.7 km/s[4]
55 × Earth[4]
TemperatureCenter: 1.57×107 K[1]
Photosphere: 5,778 K[1]
Corona: ≈ 5×106 K
Luminosity (Lsol)3.846×1026 W[1]
Age≈4.6 billion years[7][8]
The Sun as it is seen from Earth

The Sun in the center of our solar system is a yellow dwarf star. It gives off energy as light. That includes light, infra-red energy (heat), ultraviolet light and radio waves. It also gives off a stream of particles, which reaches Earth as "solar wind". The source of all this energy is the reaction in the star which turns hydrogen into helium and makes huge amounts of energy.

The Sun is a star like many others in our Milky Way galaxy. It has existed for a little over 4.5 billion years, and is going to continue for at least as long. The Sun is about a hundred times as wide as the Earth. It has a mass of 1.9891×1030 kg, which is 333,000 times the mass of the Earth. The Earth can also fit inside the Sun 1.3 million times.

Physics of the Sun

Origin

Scientists think that the Sun started from a very large cloud of dust and small bits of ice about 4.567 billion years ago.[9]

At the center of that huge cloud, gravity caused the material to build up into a ball. Once this got big enough, the huge pressure inside started a fusion reaction. The energy this released caused that ball to heat and shine.

The energy radiated from the Sun pushed away the rest of the cloud from itself, and the planets formed from the rest of this cloud.

How it works

The sun can also be used as a source of solar energy.

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Тыгъэ
Afrikaans: Son
Akan: Ewia
Alemannisch: Sonne
አማርኛ: ፀሐይ
Ænglisc: Sunne
Аҧсшәа: Амра
العربية: الشمس
aragonés: Sol
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܫܡܫܐ
armãneashti: Soari
arpetan: Solely
অসমীয়া: সূৰ্য
asturianu: Sol
Atikamekw: Pisimw
Avañe'ẽ: Kuarahy
авар: Бакъ
Aymar aru: Willka
azərbaycanca: Günəş
تۆرکجه: گونش
বাংলা: সূর্য
Bahasa Banjar: Matahari
Bân-lâm-gú: Ji̍t-thâu
Basa Banyumasan: Srengenge
башҡортса: Ҡояш
беларуская: Сонца
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сонца
भोजपुरी: सुरुज
Bikol Central: Saldang
български: Слънце
Boarisch: Sun
བོད་ཡིག: ཉི་མ།
bosanski: Sunce
brezhoneg: Heol
буряад: Наран
català: Sol
Чӑвашла: Хĕвел
Cebuano: Adlaw
čeština: Slunce
chiShona: Zuva
chiTumbuka: Zuwa
corsu: Soli
Cymraeg: Haul
dansk: Solen
davvisámegiella: Beaivváš
Deitsch: Sunn
Deutsch: Sonne
ދިވެހިބަސް: އިރު
Diné bizaad: Jóhonaaʼéí
डोटेली: सूर्य
eesti: Päike
Ελληνικά: Ήλιος
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Såul
English: Sun
español: Sol
Esperanto: Suno
estremeñu: Sol
euskara: Eguzkia
فارسی: خورشید
Fiji Hindi: Suraj
føroyskt: Sólin
français: Soleil
Frysk: Sinne
Fulfulde: Naange
furlan: Soreli
Gaeilge: An Ghrian
Gaelg: Yn Ghrian
Gàidhlig: Grian
galego: Sol
ГӀалгӀай: Малх
贛語: 太陽
ગુજરાતી: સૂર્ય
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐍃𐌿𐌽𐌽𐍉
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Ngit-thèu
хальмг: Нарн
한국어: 태양
Hausa: Rana
Hawaiʻi:
հայերեն: Արեգակ
हिन्दी: सूर्य
hornjoserbsce: Słónco
hrvatski: Sunce
Ido: Suno
Ilokano: Init
Bahasa Indonesia: Matahari
interlingua: Sol
Interlingue: Sole
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓯᕿᓂᖅ
Ирон: Хур
isiXhosa: UKat
isiZulu: Ilanga
íslenska: Sólin
italiano: Sole
עברית: השמש
Basa Jawa: Srengéngé
Kabɩyɛ: Wɩsɩ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸೂರ್ಯ
Kapampangan: Aldo
къарачай-малкъар: Кюн
ქართული: მზე
kaszëbsczi: Słuńce
қазақша: Күн (жұлдыз)
kernowek: Howl
Kiswahili: Jua
коми: Шонді
Kongo: Ntangu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Solèy
kurdî: Roj (stêrk)
Кыргызча: Күн
Ladino: Sol
latgaļu: Saule
Latina: Sol
latviešu: Saule
Lëtzebuergesch: Sonn
лезги: Рагъ
lietuvių: Saulė
Ligure:
Limburgs: Zon
lingála: Mói
Lingua Franca Nova: Sol
Livvinkarjala: Päiväine
la .lojban.: solri
lumbaart: Suu
magyar: Nap
मैथिली: सूर्य
македонски: Сонце
Malagasy: Masoandro
മലയാളം: സൂര്യൻ
Malti: Xemx
मराठी: सूर्य
მარგალური: ბჟა
مصرى: الشمس
مازِرونی: خورشید
Bahasa Melayu: Matahari
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Nĭk-tàu
Mirandés: Sol
мокшень: Шись
монгол: Нар
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နေ
Nāhuatl: Tōnatiuh
Dorerin Naoero: Ekwan
Nederlands: Zon
Nedersaksies: Zunne
Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ: ᒌᔑᑳᐅᐲᓯᒽ
नेपाली: सूर्य
नेपाल भाषा: सूर्द्य
日本語: 太陽
Napulitano: Sole
нохчийн: Малх
Nordfriisk: San
norsk: Solen
norsk nynorsk: Sola
Nouormand: Solé
Novial: Sune
occitan: Soleu
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ସୂର୍ଯ୍ୟ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Quyosh
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸੂਰਜ
Pälzisch: Sonne
پنجابی: سورج
Papiamentu: Solo
پښتو: لمر
Patois: Son
Перем Коми: Шонді
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព្រះអាទិត្យ
Picard: Solel
Piemontèis: Sol
Tok Pisin: San
Plattdüütsch: Sünn
polski: Słońce
Ποντιακά: Ήλος
português: Sol
Qaraqalpaqsha: Quyash
qırımtatarca: Küneş
Ripoarisch: Sunn
română: Soare
Romani: Kham
rumantsch: Sulegl
Runa Simi: Inti
русиньскый: Сонце
русский: Солнце
саха тыла: Күн (сулус)
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱥᱤᱧ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ
संस्कृतम्: सूर्यः
sardu: Sole
Scots: Sun
Seeltersk: Sunne
shqip: Dielli
sicilianu: Suli
සිංහල: හිරු
سنڌي: سج
slovenčina: Slnko
slovenščina: Sonce
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Слъньцє
ślůnski: Słůńce
Soomaaliga: Qorax
کوردی: خۆر
српски / srpski: Сунце
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sunce
Basa Sunda: Panonpoé
suomi: Aurinko
svenska: Solen
Taqbaylit: Iṭij
татарча/tatarça: Кояш
తెలుగు: సూర్యుడు
тоҷикӣ: Офтоб
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏅᏓ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Éše'he
ತುಳು: ಸೂರ್ಯ
Türkçe: Güneş
Türkmençe: Gün (ýyldyz)
Twi: Ewia
тыва дыл: Хүн (сылдыс)
удмурт: Шунды
українська: Сонце
اردو: سورج
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: قۇياش
Vahcuengh: Daengngoenz
vèneto: Sołe
vepsän kel’: Päiväine
Tiếng Việt: Mặt Trời
Volapük: Sol
Võro: Päiv
walon: Solea
文言:
West-Vlams: Zunne
Wolof: Jant
吴语: 太陽
ייִדיש: זון
Yorùbá: Òrùn
粵語: 太陽
Zazaki: Tici
Zeêuws: Zunne
žemaitėška: Saulė
中文: 太阳