Steam engine

Full scale working replica of 1712 Thomas Newcomen engine for pumping water from mines on the estates of Lord Dudley. Black Country Living Museum
Earliest surviving locomotive: Puffing Billy at the Science Museum
This huge building housed the four largest beam engines in Britain. They were used for moving sewage at Crossness, Bexley
Old Bess: Watt's beam engine, 1777, built by Boulton and Watt. The engine was used to raise water. Constant water was needed because a water wheel was used to drive the machinery in Boulton's Soho Manufactory in Birmingham

A steam engine is an engine which uses steam from boiling water to make it move. The steam pushes on the engine parts to make them move. Steam engines can power many kinds of machines including vehicles and electric generators.

Steam engines were used in mine pumps starting in the early 18th century and were much improved by James Watt in the 1770s. They were very important during the industrial revolution where they replaced horses, windmills and watermills to work machines.

The first steam engines were piston engines. The steam pressure pushed on a piston which made it move along a cylinder and so they had a reciprocal (back-and-forth) motion. This could move a pump directly or work a crank to turn a wheel and work a machine. They operated at low pressure and had to be very big to make a lot of power.

Steam engines were used in factories to work machines and in mines to move pumps. Later smaller engines were built that could move railway locomotives and steam boats.

The steam to power a steam engine is made in a boiler that heats water to make steam. In most places fire heats the boiler. Fuel for the fire may be wood, coal, or petroleum. Nuclear energy or solar energy may be used instead of fire. The steam coming out of the boiler applies the force on a piston. A valve sends the steam to one end of the piston, then the other, to make it move backwards and forwards. The moving piston pushes and pulls the piston rod, crosshead and connecting rod, to turn wheels or drive other machinery. The heavy spinning flywheel smooths out the power from the piston. The governor controls the speed of the engine.

Today many steam engines are still at work. During the 20th century the pistons were replaced by turbines which spin like a windmill pushed by jets of steam. These turn faster with more energy efficiency than the original kinds of piston steam engines. They are used in power plants to operate generators which make electricity. Some ships are also powered by steam turbines. The boilers of steam turbines can be heated by many different types of fuel, even a nuclear reactor in some power stations and warships.

The governor: Boulton and Watt's important invention
The plaque says it all


Other Languages
Afrikaans: Stoomenjin
Alemannisch: Dampfmaschine
العربية: محرك بخاري
aragonés: Maquina de vapor
অসমীয়া: ভাপ ইঞ্জিন
azərbaycanca: Buxar maşını
Bân-lâm-gú: Cheng-khì ki-koan
башҡортса: Пар машинаһы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Парасілавая ўстаноўка
български: Парна машина
bosanski: Parna mašina
čeština: Parní stroj
Cymraeg: Peiriant ager
Deutsch: Dampfmaschine
eesti: Aurumasin
Ελληνικά: Ατμομηχανή
English: Steam engine
Esperanto: Vapormaŝino
euskara: Lurrun-makina
Gaeilge: Inneall gaile
Gàidhlig: Inneal-smùide
한국어: 증기 기관
Հայերեն: Շոգեմեքենա
हिन्दी: भाप का इंजन
hrvatski: Parni stroj
Bahasa Indonesia: Mesin uap
interlingua: Motor de vapor
íslenska: Gufuvél
italiano: Motore a vapore
Basa Jawa: Mesin uwab
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಉಗಿಯಂತ್ರ
қазақша: Бу машинасы
Kiswahili: Injini ya mvuke
Кыргызча: Буу машинасы
latviešu: Tvaika dzinējs
lietuvių: Garo mašina
magyar: Gőzgép
македонски: Парна машина
മലയാളം: ആവിയന്ത്രം
Bahasa Melayu: Enjin wap
монгол: Уурын машин
Nederlands: Stoommachine
नेपाल भाषा: स्टिम इन्जिन
日本語: 蒸気機関
norsk: Dampmaskin
norsk nynorsk: Dampmaskin
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Bugʻ mashinasi
Patois: Stiim injin
português: Motor a vapor
română: Motor cu abur
Runa Simi: Wapsi kuyuchina
русиньскый: Парова машына
slovenčina: Parný stroj
slovenščina: Parni stroj
српски / srpski: Парна машина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Parna mašina
suomi: Höyrykone
svenska: Ångmaskin
татарча/tatarça: Bu yörtkeçe (maşina)
Türkçe: Buhar makinesi
українська: Парова машина
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ھور ماشىنىسى
vepsän kel’: Purumašin
Tiếng Việt: Động cơ hơi nước
Võro: Aurumoodor
吴语: 蒸汽机
ייִדיש: דאמפמאטאר
粵語: 蒸氣機
中文: 蒸汽机