Sedimentary rock

Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee.
Red sandstone: Wirral, England
Sedimentary rock: Karnataka, India
Pressure solution at work in a clastic rock. While material dissolves at places where grains are in contact, material crystallizes from the solution (as cement) in open pore spaces. This makes a net flow of material from areas under high stress to those under low stress. As a result, the rock becomes more compact and harder. Loose sand can become sandstone in this way.
Fossil in shale: Grube Messel, Germany

Sedimentary rocks are rocks formed from sediment. They are deposited over time, and often show layers which can be seen in cliffs. Other types of rock are igneous rock and metamorphic rock.

Sediments are usually formed from matter which falls to the bottom of oceans and lakes. The matter includes tiny pieces of other rocks, and dead animals, plants and microorganisms. Also, inorganic chemicals may be precipitated from solution in the water. The three most common sedimentary rocks are limestone, sandstone and shale.[1]

Sedimentary rocks cover 75–80% of the Earth's land area, but they make up only 5% of the Earth's crust. The relative abundances of the different types of sedimentary rocks are:


Squeezed and compressed over time, the sediments become 'consolidated' (made solid) into layers of rock. Stratigraphy is the study of those layers

Cementation occurs when dissolved mineral components deposit in the interstices of sediments. It is the sticking together of sediment that forms a rock.

Otherwise, rocks may have the water squeezed out, yet remain for long periods with their character unchanged. There are many quarries of unconsolidated deposits where sand and gravel are removed for the construction industry. Such quarries may be taking out sand which has lasted as sand since the Jurassic period. But consolidated sand, sandstone, can be a very hard rock.

Consolidated rocks may be changed some more, by water seeping through, or by heat and extreme pressure.

Other Languages
العربية: صخر رسوبي
Bân-lâm-gú: Tui-chek-giâm
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Асадкавыя горныя пароды
eesti: Settekivim
فارسی: سنگ رسوبی
한국어: 퇴적암
हिन्दी: अवसादी शैल
Bahasa Indonesia: Batuan sedimen
íslenska: Setberg
עברית: סלע משקע
latviešu: Nogulumieži
Lëtzebuergesch: Sediment
македонски: Седиментна карпа
മലയാളം: അവസാദശില
Bahasa Melayu: Batuan enapan
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အနည်ကျကျောက်
日本語: 堆積岩
norsk nynorsk: Sedimentær bergart
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Choʻkindi togʻ jinslari
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਤਲਛਟੀ ਚਟਾਨ
پنجابی: بیٹھی پڑی
Plattdüütsch: Sedimentit
português: Rocha sedimentar
slovenčina: Usadená hornina
slovenščina: Sedimentne kamnine
српски / srpski: Седиментне стене
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Sedimentne stijene
Basa Sunda: Batu tamperan
Tiếng Việt: Đá trầm tích
中文: 沉积岩