Roman consul

.!. A Roman consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic.

Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. Each consul was given veto power over his colleague and the officials would alternate each month.[1]

The consuls were usually patricians, though after 367 BC plebs (common people; plebeians) could stand for election as consul.

Consuls had extensive power in peacetime (administrative, legislative and judicial), and in wartime often held the highest military command. They conducted some religious rites which could only be done by the highest state officials. Consuls also read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field.

Civil administration

The consuls could convene the Senate, and presided over its meetings. Each consul served as president of the Senate for a month. They could also summon any of the Roman assemblies and preside over them. Thus, the consuls conducted the elections and put legislative measures to the vote. When neither consul was within the city, their civic duties were assumed by the praetor urbanus (city prefect).

Each consul was accompanied in every public appearance by twelve lictors, who displayed the magnificence of the office and served as his bodyguards. Each lictor held a fasces, a bundle of rods that contained an axe. The rods symbolized the power of scourging, and the axe the power of capital punishment. When inside the city, the lictors removed the axes from the fasces to show that a citizen could not be executed without a trial. Upon entering the democratic assembly, the lictors would lower the fasces to show that the powers of the consuls derive from the people (populus romanus).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Konsul (Rome)
Alemannisch: Consulat
asturianu: Cónsul romanu
azərbaycanca: Konsul (Qədim Roma)
bosanski: Konzul
brezhoneg: Konsul
català: Cònsol romà
čeština: Římský konzul
dansk: Consul
Deutsch: Consulat
English: Roman consul
español: Cónsul romano
فارسی: کنسول روم
Frysk: Konsul
한국어: 집정관
հայերեն: Կոնսուլ
hrvatski: Rimski konzul
Ido: Konsulo
Bahasa Indonesia: Konsul Romawi
interlingua: Consule
ქართული: კონსული
kurdî: Konsul
Latina: Consul
latviešu: Konsuls (Roma)
lietuvių: Konsulas (Roma)
magyar: Consul
македонски: Римски конзул
Bahasa Melayu: Tribun konsul
Nederlands: Consul (Rome)
日本語: 執政官
norsk nynorsk: Romersk konsul
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Konsul
Plattdüütsch: Kunsel (Rom)
română: Consul
slovenščina: Rimski konzul
српски / srpski: Конзул (магистрат)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Konzul
svenska: Konsul (Rom)
Tagalog: Konsulado
татарча/tatarça: Konsul
Türkçe: Konsül (Roma)
Tiếng Việt: Quan chấp chính