English: Prussia

Kingdom of Prussia

Königreich von Preußen  (German)
Flag of Prussia
Lesser arms Full achievement of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia
Left: Prussian eagle (1871–1918)
Right: full achievement(1873–1918)
Motto: Gott mit uns  (High German)
Nobiscum deus  (Latin)
"God with us"
Prussia (in blue) at its height as the leading state of the German Empire
Prussia (in blue) at its height as the leading state of the German Empire
CapitalKönigsberg (1525–1701)
Berlin (1701–1947)
Common languagesGerman (official)
GovernmentMonarchy (until 1918), Republic
• 1525–1568
Albert I (first)
• 1688–1701
Frederick III (last)
• 1701–1713
Frederick I (first)
• 1888–1918
Wilhelm II (last)
Prime Minister1, 2 
• 1918
Friedrich Ebert (first)
• 1933–1945
Hermann Göring (last)
Historical eraEarly modern Europe to Contemporary
10 April 1525
• Union with Brandenburg
27 August 1618
18 January 1701
• Free State of Prussia
9 November 1918
• Abolition (de facto, loss of independence)
30 January 1934
• Abolition (de jure)
25 February 1947
German gold mark (1873–1914)
Reichsmark (1924 to the Abolition of Prussia)
Today part ofGermany
Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast)
Czech Republic
  • 1 The heads of state listed here are the first and last to hold each title over time. For more information, see individual Prussian state articles (links in above History section).
  • 2 The position of Ministerpräsident was introduced in 1792 when Prussia was a Kingdom; the prime ministers shown here are the heads of the Prussian republic.

Prussia (German: Preußen) was the name of a series of countries, mostly used for the Kingdom of Prussia, in Northern Europe. It was part of Germany for a while, and included land in Poland, France, and Lithuania, too. The name "Prussian" has had a lot of different meanings in the past and now:

In 1934, Germany stopped using the name Prussia for that area, and in 1947 the Allies abolished the state of Prussia, and divided its territory among themselves and the new States of Germany. Today the name is only for historical, geographical, or cultural use.

The name Prussia is from the Borussi or Prussi people who lived in the Baltic region and spoke the Old Prussian language. Ducal Prussia was a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland until 1660, and Royal Prussia was part of Poland until 1772. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, most German-speaking Prussians started thinking they were part of the German nation. They thought the Prussian way of life was very important:

  • Perfect organization
  • Sacrifice (giving other people something you need)
  • Obeying the law

From the late 18th century, Prussia had a lot of power in Northern Germany and throughout Central Europe; it was the strongest in politics and economics, and it had the most people. After Chancellor Otto von Bismarck dissolved the German Confederation, Prussia annexed almost all of northern Germany. In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, von Bismarck created the German Empire, and Prussia was the center of the empire, with the Kings of Prussia being the Emperors of Germany.


Prussia was a small part of today’s northern Poland. After a small number of Prussi people lived there, Germans came to live there too. In 1934, Prussia’s borders were with France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Lithuania. Some parts of Prussia can be found in eastern Poland. Before 1918, a lot of western Poland was also in Prussia. Between 1795 and 1807, Prussia also controlled Warsaw and most of central Poland.

Before 1934, these regions were also in Prussia:

However, some regions were never part of Prussia, such as Oldenburg, Mecklenburg, and the Hanse city-states.

North-east Germany was Protestant, so Prussians were mostly Protestant. But there were a lot of Catholic people in the Rhineland, East Prussia, Posen, Silesia, West Prussia, and Ermland. The states of south Germany (especially Austria and Bavaria) were Catholic, so they did not want Prussian rule. Prussia was mostly German, but in the late 18th century the new Polish areas had a lot of Polish people too. In 1918, these Polish areas were given to Poland, and in 1945, Pomerania and East Prussia were given to Poland, and northern East Prussia, specifically Kaliningrad, was given to Russia.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Pruise
Alemannisch: Preussen
አማርኛ: ፕሩሲያ
Ænglisc: Prēossland
العربية: بروسيا
asturianu: Prusia
تۆرکجه: پروس
башҡортса: Пруссия
беларуская: Прусія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Прусія
български: Прусия
bosanski: Pruska
brezhoneg: Prusia
català: Prússia
čeština: Prusko
Cymraeg: Prwsia
dansk: Preussen
Deutsch: Preußen
dolnoserbski: Pšuska
Ελληνικά: Πρωσία
English: Prussia
español: Prusia
Esperanto: Prusio
euskara: Prusia
فارسی: پروس
français: Prusse
Frysk: Prusen
Gaeilge: An Phrúis
Gaelg: Yn Phroosh
Gàidhlig: A' Phruis
한국어: 프로이센
हिन्दी: प्रशिया
hornjoserbsce: Pruska
hrvatski: Pruska
Ido: Prusia
Bahasa Indonesia: Prusia
interlingua: Prussia
Interlingue: Prussia
íslenska: Prússland
italiano: Prussia
עברית: פרוסיה
Jawa: Prusia
ქართული: პრუსია
қазақша: Пруссия
Kiswahili: Prussia
Latina: Borussia
latviešu: Prūsija
Lëtzebuergesch: Preisen
лезги: Пруссия
lietuvių: Prūsija
Ligure: Pruscia
Limburgs: Pruses (land)
македонски: Прусија
മലയാളം: പ്രഷ്യ
मराठी: प्रशिया
مصرى: بروسيا
مازِرونی: پروس
Bahasa Melayu: Prusia
Nederlands: Pruisen
Nedersaksies: Praissen
日本語: プロイセン
Napulitano: Prussia
нохчийн: Прусси
norsk: Preussen
norsk nynorsk: Preussen
occitan: Prússia
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪ੍ਰੌਇਸਨ
پنجابی: پروشیا
Plattdüütsch: Preußen (Staat)
português: Prússia
română: Prusia
русиньскый: Пруссія
русский: Пруссия
sardu: Prùssia
Scots: Proushie
shqip: Prusia
sicilianu: Prussia
slovenščina: Prusija
کوردی: پروسیا
српски / srpski: Пруска
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pruska
suomi: Preussi
svenska: Preussen
Tagalog: Prusya
தமிழ்: புருசியா
татарча/tatarça: Prussiä
Türkçe: Prusya
українська: Пруссія
اردو: پروشیا
Tiếng Việt: Phổ (quốc gia)
文言: 普魯士
West-Vlams: Pruussn
Winaray: Prusya
吴语: 普鲁士
ייִדיש: פרייסן
Yorùbá: Prussia
粵語: 普魯士
žemaitėška: Prūsėjė
中文: 普魯士