The former provinces of Japan were converted into prefectures between 1876 and 1879.
The term todofuken combines suffixes which recognize Japan's 47 largest sub-national jurisdictions, including
- -to .... one metropolis (都 -to), Tokyo (東京都, Tōkyōto)
- -do .... one “circuit” (道 -dō), Hokkaido (北海道, Hokkaidō)
- -fu .... two urban prefectures (府 -fu), Osaka (大阪府, Ōsakafu) and Kyoto (京都府, Kyōtofu)
- -ken ... forty-three other prefectures (県 -ken)