The piano was invented by
Bartolomeo Cristoffori of
Italy. He made his first piano in 1709. It developed from the
clavichord which looks like a piano but the strings of a clavichord are hit by a small blade of
metal called a “tangent”.
 In the piano the strings are hit by a block of wood called a hammer. The early keyboarded instruments, such as the clavichords,
organs that were used at that time, had a much shorter keyboard than they do today. Gradually the keyboard became longer until it had the 88 notes (7
octaves plus three notes) of the modern piano.
At first the instrument was called the “fortepiano”. This means “loud-soft” in
Italian. It was given this name because it could be played either loudly or softly, depending on how hard the note was hit (the
harpsichord could not do this, and the
clavichord could only make a tiny difference between louder and softer). Later this name changed to “pianoforte”. This is normally shortened to “piano”. The word “fortepiano” is sometimes used to describe the pianos of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In some languages, such as
Russian, “fortepiano” is the normal word for a piano.
Although the piano was invented at the beginning of the 18th century, it was not until 50 years later that it started to become popular. The first time the piano was played in a public concert in
London was in 1768 when it was played by
Johann Christian Bach.
 The upright piano was invented in 1800 by John Isaac Hawkings. Seven years later T. Southwell invented “overstringing”. This means that the strings for the low notes go diagonally across the soundboard so that they can be longer and make a much bigger sound.
The early pianos had strings that were fastened to a frame made of wood. They were not very heavy, but they were not very strong or loud, so they could not be heard very well in a big
concert hall. In 1825 the cast-iron frame was invented in
America. This made the piano much stronger so that it could make a bigger sound and the strings were not likely to break.