Physics

Physics is a branch of science. It studies matter, and all forces and their effects. Modern physics connects ideas about the four laws of symmetry and conservation of energy, momentum, charge, and parity. The word physics comes from the Greek word ἡ φύσις, meaning "nature".[1] Physics can also be defined as "that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events".[2]

One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves.

Physics is a very old discipline because astronomy, a part of physics, is the oldest natural science. In the past it was a part of natural philosophy with other fields of science, such as chemistry and biology, but during the scientific revolution, these fields became separate, and physics became a distinct field of knowledge.

Physics is very important in the development of new technologies, such as airplanes, televisions, computers and nuclear weapons. Mechanics, a branch of physics, helped develop the mathematical field of calculus.

History

Ancient astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest natural science. The Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, and Indus Valley Civilization all understood that the objects in the sky moved since before 3000 BC.[3] This is because they worshiped the objects in the sky as gods. Their understanding wasn't scientific, but their observations influenced later astronomy. A significant amount of astronomy came from Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Greece. Astronomers from Egypt built monuments that showed how objects in the sky moved, and most of the names for the constellations in the Northern hemisphere came from Greek astronomers.

Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy started in Greece around 650 BC when a movement of philosophers replaced superstition with naturalism, which refuted the spiritual. Leucippus and his student Democritus suggested the idea of the atom around this period.

Physics in the medieval Islamic world

Islamic scholars continued to study Aristotelian physics during the Islamic Golden Age. They also developed an early form of the scientific method. Scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-KindiIbn al-Haytham,  Al-Farisi and Avicenna worked extensively on optics and vision. In The Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham rejected previous Greek ideas concerning vision and proposed a new theory. He studied how light enters the eye and then developed the camera obscura. European scientists later built eyeglasses, magnifying glasses, telescopes, and cameras from this book.

Classical physics

Physics became a separate field of study after the scientific revolution.[4] Galileo's experiments helped to create classical physics. Although he did not invent the telescope, he used it when he looked into the night sky. He discovered that the stars and planets were not perfect. He also investigated gravity. Isaac Newton used Galileo's ideas to create his three laws of motion.[5] He also developed calculus to help understand problems in mechanics, such as how celestial bodies moved around the Sun.

In a couple centuries, the Industrial Revolution was in full swing and many more discoveries were made in many fields of science. The laws of classical physics are good enough to study objects that move much slower than the speed of light, and are not microscopic. When scientists first studied quantum mechanics, they had to create a new set of laws, which was the start of Modern Physics.

Modern physics

As scientists researched particles, they discovered what classical mechanics could not explain. Classical mechanics predicted that the speed of light varied, but experiments showed the speed of light stayed the same. This was predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity. Einstein predicted that the speed of electromagnetic radiation through empty space would always be the same. His view of space-time replaced the ancient idea that space and time were quite separate things.

Max Planck came up with quantum mechanics to explain why metal releases electrons when you shine a light at it, and why matter emits radiation. Quantum mechanics applies for very small things like the electrons, protons, and neutrons that make up an atom. People like Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, and Paul Dirac continued to work on quantum mechanics and eventually we got the Standard Model.[6][7]

Other Languages
Acèh: Fisika
Afrikaans: Fisika
Alemannisch: Physik
العربية: فيزياء
aragonés: Fisica
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܦܝܣܝܟ
armãneashti: Fizicâ
asturianu: Física
Avañe'ẽ: Mba'erekokuaa
azərbaycanca: Fizika
تۆرکجه: فیزیک
Bahasa Banjar: Pisika
Bân-lâm-gú: Bu̍t-lí-ha̍k
Basa Banyumasan: Fisika
башҡортса: Физика
беларуская: Фізіка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фізыка
भोजपुरी: भौतिकी
български: Физика
Boarisch: Physik
bosanski: Fizika
brezhoneg: Fizik
буряад: Бодос зүй
català: Física
Чӑвашла: Физика
Cebuano: Pisika
čeština: Fyzika
chiShona: Fundoyetsimba
corsu: Fisica
Cymraeg: Ffiseg
dansk: Fysik
Deutsch: Physik
ދިވެހިބަސް: ފީޒިޔާއީ އިލްމު
dolnoserbski: Fyzika
eesti: Füüsika
Ελληνικά: Φυσική
English: Physics
español: Física
Esperanto: Fiziko
estremeñu: Física
euskara: Fisika
فارسی: فیزیک
Fiji Hindi: Bhautik vigyan
føroyskt: Alisfrøði
français: Physique
furlan: Fisiche
Gaeilge: Fisic
Gaelg: Fishig
Gàidhlig: Fiosaig
galego: Física
贛語: 物理學
Gĩkũyũ: Physics
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Vu̍t-lî-ho̍k
хальмг: Физика
한국어: 물리학
Hawaiʻi: Kālaikūlohea
Հայերեն: Ֆիզիկա
hornjoserbsce: Fyzika
hrvatski: Fizika
Ido: Fiziko
Ilokano: Pisika
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: পদার্থবিজ্ঞান
Bahasa Indonesia: Fisika
interlingua: Physica
Interlingue: Fisica
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐆᒫᑦᓱᓕᕆᓂᖅ/umatsuliriniq
Ирон: Физикæ
isiXhosa: Ifiziki
íslenska: Eðlisfræði
italiano: Fisica
עברית: פיזיקה
Basa Jawa: Fisika
kalaallisut: Uumaatsulerineq
Kapampangan: Physics
ქართული: ფიზიკა
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: فیزیک
kaszëbsczi: Fizyka
қазақша: Физика
Kiswahili: Fizikia
Kongo: Fizika
Kreyòl ayisyen: Fizik
kurdî: Fizîk
Кыргызча: Физика
Ladino: Fisika
лезги: Физика
لۊری شومالی: سریشت دۊنسمٱنی
Latina: Physica
latviešu: Fizika
Lëtzebuergesch: Physik
lietuvių: Fizika
Ligure: Fixica
Limburgs: Natuurkunde
lingála: Fízíkí
la .lojban.: termu'eske
Luganda: Ebyobuzimbe
lumbaart: Fisica
magyar: Fizika
македонски: Физика
Malagasy: Fizika
მარგალური: ფიზიკა
مصرى: فيزيا
مازِرونی: فیزیک
Bahasa Melayu: Fizik
Baso Minangkabau: Fisika
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ŭk-lī
Mirandés: Física
монгол: Физик
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ရူပဗေဒ
Nāhuatl: Iuhcāyōtl
Nederlands: Natuurkunde
Nedersaksies: Netuurkunde
नेपाल भाषा: भौतिक शास्त्र
日本語: 物理学
Napulitano: Físeca
Nordfriisk: Füsiik
Norfuk / Pitkern: Fisiks
norsk: Fysikk
norsk nynorsk: Fysikk
Nouormand: Phŷsique
Novial: Fisike
occitan: Fisica
олык марий: Физике
Oromoo: Fiiziksii
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fizika
پنجابی: فزکس
Patois: Fizix
ភាសាខ្មែរ: រូបវិទ្យា
Picard: Fisike
Piemontèis: Fìsica
Plattdüütsch: Physik
polski: Fizyka
português: Física
română: Fizică
Runa Simi: Pachaykamay
русиньскый: Фізіка
русский: Физика
саха тыла: Физика
Gagana Samoa: Fisiki
संस्कृतम्: भौतिकशास्त्रम्
sardu: Fìsica
Scots: Pheesics
Seeltersk: Physik
Sesotho: Fisiksi
Sesotho sa Leboa: Fisika
shqip: Fizika
sicilianu: Fìsica
سنڌي: فزڪس
slovenčina: Fyzika
slovenščina: Fizika
ślůnski: Fizyka
Soomaaliga: Fiisigis
کوردی: فیزیک
Sranantongo: Sabi fu natru
српски / srpski: Физика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fizika
Basa Sunda: Fisika
suomi: Fysiikka
svenska: Fysik
Tagalog: Pisika
татарча/tatarça: Физика
тоҷикӣ: Физика
Türkçe: Fizik
Türkmençe: Fizika
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Piööckatɔɔr
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: ᨄᨗᨔᨗᨀ
українська: Фізика
اردو: طبیعیات
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: فىزىكا
vèneto: Fìxica
Tiếng Việt: Vật lý học
Volapük: Füsüd
Võro: Füüsiga
walon: Fizike
文言: 物理
Winaray: Fisika
Wolof: Jëmm
吴语: 物理学
ייִדיש: פיזיק
Yorùbá: Físíksì
粵語: 物理
Zazaki: Fizik
Zeêuws: Natuurkunde
žemaitėška: Fizėka
中文: 物理学
Lingua Franca Nova: Fisica