Photosynthesis

Energy from sunlight, water absorbed by the roots, and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere produce glucose and oxygen by photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other things make food.[1] It is a chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars that the cell can use as energy. As well as plants, many kinds of algae, protists and bacteria use it to get food. Photosynthesis is very important for all life on Earth. Most plants either directly or indirectly depend on it. The exception are certain organisms that directly get their energy from chemical reactions; these organisms are called chemoautotrophs.

Photosynthesis can happen in different ways, but there are some parts that are common.

6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O + photonsC6H12O6(aq) + 6 O2(g)
carbon dioxide + water + light energy → glucose + oxygen

Reactions

Diagram of a chloroplast

Photosynthesis has two main sets of reactions. Light-dependent reactions need light to work; and light-independent reactions, which do not need light to work.

Light-dependent reactions

Light energy from the sun is used to split water molecules (photolysis). The sunlight hits chloroplasts in the plant, causing an enzyme to break apart the water. Water, when broken, makes oxygen, hydrogen, and electrons in the pathway of Dolai's S-state diagrams. Ref. Dolai, U (2017) "Chemical Scheme of Water -Splitting Process during Photosynthesis by the way of Experimental Analysis ". IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 12(6): 65-67. doi:10.9790/3008-1206026567. ISSN 2319-7676.

Hydrogen, along with electrons energized by light, converts NADP into NADPH which is then used in the light-independent reactions. Oxygen diffuses out of the plant as a waste product of photosynthesis, and ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate. This all happens in the grana of chloroplasts.

Light-independent reactions

During this reaction, sugars are built up using carbon dioxide and the products of the light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) and various other chemicals found in the plant in the Calvin Cycle. Therefore, the light-independent reaction cannot happen without the light-dependent reaction. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the plant and along with chemicals in the chloroplast, ATP, and NADPH, glucose is made and finally, transported around the plant by translocation.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Fotosintese
Alemannisch: Photosynthese
العربية: تركيب ضوئي
aragonés: Fotosintesi
asturianu: Fotosíntesis
Avañe'ẽ: Tesapemoñanga
azərbaycanca: Fotosintez
تۆرکجه: فوتوسینتز
Bân-lâm-gú: Kong-ha̍p-sêng
башҡортса: Фотосинтез
беларуская: Фотасінтэз
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Фотасынтэз
български: Фотосинтеза
bosanski: Fotosinteza
brezhoneg: Fotosintezenn
буряад: Фотосинтез
català: Fotosíntesi
čeština: Fotosyntéza
Deutsch: Photosynthese
Ελληνικά: Φωτοσύνθεση
español: Fotosíntesis
Esperanto: Fotosintezo
estremeñu: Fotosíntesi
euskara: Fotosintesi
فارسی: فتوسنتز
Fiji Hindi: Photosynthesis
français: Photosynthèse
Gàidhlig: Foto-cho-chur
galego: Fotosíntese
한국어: 광합성
հայերեն: Ֆոտոսինթեզ
hrvatski: Fotosinteza
Ilokano: Potosintesis
Bahasa Indonesia: Fotosintesis
interlingua: Photosynthese
íslenska: Ljóstillífun
Basa Jawa: Fotosintèsis
Kapampangan: Photosynthesis
ქართული: ფოტოსინთეზი
қазақша: Фотосинтез
Kiswahili: Usanisinuru
Kreyòl ayisyen: Fotosentèz
kurdî: Fotosentez
Кыргызча: Фотосинтез
latviešu: Fotosintēze
lietuvių: Fotosintezė
Limburgs: Fotosynthees
македонски: Фотосинтеза
Bahasa Melayu: Fotosintesis
монгол: Фотосинтез
Nederlands: Fotosynthese
Nedersaksies: Fotosyntese
नेपाल भाषा: फोटोसिन्थेसिस
日本語: 光合成
Nordfriisk: Footosüntees
norsk nynorsk: Fotosyntese
occitan: Fotosintèsi
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Fotosintez
پنجابی: چانن پکائی
Plattdüütsch: Photosynthees
polski: Fotosynteza
português: Fotossíntese
română: Fotosinteză
Runa Simi: Inti wayllay
русиньскый: Фотосінтеза
русский: Фотосинтез
саха тыла: Фотосинтез
संस्कृतम्: प्रभासंयोगः
slovenčina: Fotosyntéza
slovenščina: Fotosinteza
српски / srpski: Фотосинтеза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Fotosinteza
Basa Sunda: Potosintésis
svenska: Fotosyntes
Tagalog: Potosintesis
татарча/tatarça: Фотосинтез
Türkçe: Fotosentez
українська: Фотосинтез
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: فوتوسىنتېز رولى
vèneto: Fotosintexi
vepsän kel’: Fotosintez
Tiếng Việt: Quang hợp
Winaray: Fotosintesis
吴语: 光合作用
ייִדיש: פאטאסינטעז
粵語: 光合作用
Zazaki: Fotosenteze
žemaitėška: Fuotėsintezė
中文: 光合作用