People's Republic of China

People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China
National Emblem
Anthem: 

"March of the Volunteers"
义勇军进行曲
Official area of the People's Republic of China shown in dark red; area claimed but disputed shown in light red.
Official area of the People's Republic of China shown in dark red; area claimed but disputed shown in light red.
CapitalBeijing
Largest cityShanghai[1][2]
Official languagesStandard Chinese
(or Putonghua)[3]
Recognised regional languagesMongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur, Zhuang, and various others
Official written languageChinese
Official scriptSimplified Chinese[3]
Ethnic groups91.51% Han;[4] 55 recognised minorities
DemonymChinese
GovernmentUnitary socialist one-party state[5]
Xi Jinping
• Premier
Li Keqiang
• Congress Chairman
Li Zhanshu
• Conference Chairman
Wang Yang
LegislatureNational People's Congress
Establishment
• Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty
221 BC
1 January 1912
21 September 1949[6][7][8]
Area
• Total
9,640,821 km2 (3,722,342 sq mi)[b] or 9,671,018 km²[b] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
2.8[c]
Population
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852[4] (1st)
• Density
139.6/km2 (361.6/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$23.159 trillion[9] (1st)
• Per capita
$16,660[9] (83rd)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total

$12.015 trillion (IMF)[9]


$12.84 trillion (China NBS)[10][11] (2nd)
• Per capita
$8,643[9] (74th)
Gini (2012)47.4[12]
high
HDI (2011)Increase 0.699[13]
medium · 101st
CurrencyRenminbi (yuan) (¥) (CNY)
Time zoneChina Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
or yyyymd
(CE; CE-1949)
Drives on theright, except for Hong Kong & Macau
Calling code+86[c]
ISO 3166 codeCN
Internet TLD

.cn[c] .中國[14]

.中国
a. ^ Simple descriptions of the political structure since the 1980s are no longer possible.

b. ^ 9,598,086 km2 (3,705,842 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories.
9,640,821 km2 (3,722,342 sq mi) includes Chinese-administered area (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract, both territories claimed by India), Taiwan is not included.[15]

c. ^ Information for mainland China only. Does not include Hong Kong, Macau, and territories under the control of the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The People's Republic of China (PRC) (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國) is a one-party state in East Asia governed by the Communist Party of China. It was founded on 21 September 1949. It currently has more than 1.4 billion people (as of 2017), which is more than any other country in the world.[4] It covers an area of 9.6 million square kilometers.

The capital city is Beijing, and Shanghai is the city with the most people living in it. Along with the cities of Tianjin and Chongqing, these four cities are "municipalities" directly controlled by the national government. Two other cities are given the status of "special administrative region" (SAR). They are Hong Kong, which was once a colony of the United Kingdom and given back to China in 1997; and Macau, which Portugal gave back in 1999. These two cities remain highly autonomous, or have much of their own power. Aside from the "municipalities" and the "SAR's", there are 23 provinces and five "autonomous regions", or regions with more law-making rights than the provinces and with a large number of people of a minority group population. They are the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, and the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.

In the SAR's, the central government is responsible for defense and foreign affairs but not the daily operations for 50 years. PRC claims Taiwan as one of its many provinces. However, PRC does not have control of Taiwan which has an entirely different political system and officially known as the Republic of China (Taiwan).

History

China has one of the world's oldest civilizations and has the oldest continuous civilization.[16] It has archaeological evidence over 5,000 years old.[17] It also has one of the world's oldest writing systems (and the oldest in use today), and is viewed as the source of many major inventions.[17]

Ancient (2100 B.C. - 1500 A.D.)

Ancient China was one of the first civilizations and was active since the 2nd millennium BC as a feudal society. Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing,[17] with the others being Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley civilization, the Maya civilization, the Minoan civilization of ancient Greece, and Ancient Egypt.[18] It reached its golden age during the Tang Dynasty (c. A.D. 10th century). Home of Confucianism and Daoism, it had great influence on nearby countries including Japan, Korea, and Vietnam in the areas of political system, philosophy, religion, art, and even writing and literature. China is home to some of the oldest artwork in the world. Statues and pottery, as well as decorations made of jade, are some classic examples.

Before the Qin Dynasty united China, there were hundreds of small states that fought each other for hundreds of years in a war to control China. This is known as the Warring States Period. Although the continuing wars made people suffer, it was at this time when many of the great philosophies of the East were born, including Confucianism and Daoism. Confucianism and Daoism alone have been the foundation of many social values seen in modern eastern-Asian cultures today.

Its geography mostly looked like that of modern China, except with northern and western edges that varied. It was often attacked by northern nomadic people such as the Turkic tribes and the Mongols lead by Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan. During the history of ancient China, the northern nomadic people and the Chinese people had been fighting each other and taking turns to rule the land and the people of China. However, when the northern people beat the Chinese people and came to rule the kingdom, they also Incorporated the Chinese way of living and became like the Chinese. Many of the strongest dynasties of China were ruled by the northern people, including the Qin, Tang, Yuan (Mongolian), and Qing (Manchu). Each time, they also brought new elements into the Chinese culture.

A new age

While China achieved many things in the First millennium and early 2nd millennium, it became an isolationist country in the 15th century C.E. This was because Spain found a lot of silver in the newly explored continents of North and South America. Silver was the main currency (money) in China and Europe at the time, and China did not want to be bought by the foreigners.

By the time of the Renaissance, European powers started to take over other countries in Asia. While China was never actually taken over by Europeans, many European countries, such as Britain and France built spheres of influence in China. Since China had cut itself off from the world over the previous few centuries, by the Qing Dynasty, it had fallen behind other countries in technology, and was helpless to stop this from happening. This had become clear when it lost the Opium Wars to Britain in the 19th century.

In 1912, the Qing dynasty was overthrown by the Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang, a nationalist party, and the Republic of China established. Over time, Marxist ideas grew popular and the Communist party was formed.

The Chinese Civil War later started between the Kuomintang (Nationalists) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Communists of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The Communists wanted to make China like the Soviet Union, whereas the other side wanted to keep China in its current state at the time. The Communists were led by Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and others. Later Liu lost influence with Mao and his death to this day remains unresolved. The Communists eventually won the war. The Nationalists (led by Chiang Kai-shek) fled to the island of Taiwan and set up their new capital city in Taipei. After the Chinese Civil War, the Communist leader Mao Zedong declared a new country, the People's Republic of China (PRC), in Beijing on September 21, 1949.[6][7][8]

In 1927, the Chinese Civil War began as the Kuomintang, led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Communists fought one another. By 1949, the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party had gained control over mainland China and Mao Zedong announced the creation of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek and the other nationalists fled to Taiwan.

Mao Zedong founding the People's Republic of China in 1949

As the leader of the People's Republic of China, Mao began many social and economic reform projects with mixed results. The Great Leap Forward, from 1958 to 1961, tried to industrialize China and increase its food production, but resulted in one of the largest famines in history. It is estimated that 45 million people died as a result of this reform project.[19] In 1966, Mao began the Cultural Revolution to remove capitalist influences from society and government. Major government officials and ordinary citizens were accused of being "revisionists" - people who disagreed with some parts of Marxism - or "counter-revolutionaries" and were persecuted. Many universities and schools were closed, and historical and religious sites were destroyed. Although the program officially ended in 1969, it continued until Mao's death in 1976.

During this time period, the People's Republic of China did not get along with the capitalist countries of the Western world. Beginning in the 1960s, relationships between the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union also became increasingly unfriendly in the Sino-Soviet Split. In 1972, to counter the power of the Soviet Union, Mao and Zhou Enlai met with US President Richard Nixon in Beijing. This began to improve relationships between China and the Western world.

After Mao's death, there was a power struggle between the Gang of Four and Hua Guofeng, the man Mao had chosen to be the next leader of China. Eventually, Deng Xiaoping, one of the veterans of the revolution, took power. He began a "Reform and Opening Up" (simplified Chinese: 改革开放; traditional Chinese: 改革開放) campaign. These reforms tried to make the People's Republic of China a modern, industrial - but still socialist - nation by moving towards a market system. Deng's policies would be known as "socialism with Chinese characteristics."

Although Deng's policy helped loosen restrictions on citizens, the People's Republic of China continues to have problems with the amount of control the government has over citizens' private lives. In 1979, the one-child policy, which limits most couples to one child, was created because of the overpopulation problem in the People's Republic of China. This policy is highly controversial and many Westerners have criticized it. News and Internet sites are also censored by the government.

In 1989, the Chinese government used soldiers and tanks to stop a protest in Beijing's Tiananmen Square organized by students seeking political reform. This action received worldwide criticism and led to economic sanctions being placed on the Chinese government.

In August 2008, China hosted the Summer Olympics for the first time.

Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Китай
Akan: China
Alemannisch: Volksrepublik China
العربية: الصين
অসমীয়া: চীন
авар: Чин
تۆرکجه: چین
bamanankan: China
বাংলা: গণচীন
Bahasa Banjar: Ripublik Rakyat Cina
беларуская: Кітай
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кітай
भोजपुरी: चीन
Bislama: Jaena
български: Китай
Boarisch: Kina
bosanski: Kina
Chamoru: China
Chavacano de Zamboanga: China
Chi-Chewa: China
chiShona: China (nyika)
chiTumbuka: China
corsu: China
dansk: Kina
davvisámegiella: Kiinná
ދިވެހިބަސް: ސީނުކަރަ
Ελληνικά: Κίνα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Cina
English: China
Esperanto: Ĉinio (Ŝtato)
eʋegbe: China
فارسی: چین
Fiji Hindi: China
français: Chine
Frysk: Sina
Fulfulde: Ciina
Gĩkũyũ: China
ગુજરાતી: ચીન
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: चीन
Hausa: Sin
Hawaiʻi: Kina
Հայերեն: Չինաստան
hornjoserbsce: China
hrvatski: Kina
Ilokano: Tsina
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গণচীন
Bahasa Indonesia: Republik Rakyat Tiongkok
interlingua: China
Interlingue: China
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᓴᐃᓇ
Ирон: Китай
isiXhosa: IShayina
isiZulu: IShayina
italiano: Cina
kalaallisut: Kina
къарачай-малкъар: Къытай Халкъ Республика
ქართული: ჩინეთი
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: چیٖن
Kinyarwanda: Ubushinwa
коми: Китай
Kongo: Sina
Kreyòl ayisyen: Chin
kurdî: Çîn
Кыргызча: Кытай
latgaļu: Ķīna
latviešu: Ķīna
Lëtzebuergesch: Volleksrepublik China
Ligure: Cinn-a
Limburgs: China
lingála: Sína
Livvinkarjala: Kitai
lumbaart: Cina
magyar: Kína
മലയാളം: ചൈന
Malti: Ċina
Māori: Haina
मराठी: चीन
მარგალური: ჩინეთი
مصرى: الصين
مازِرونی: چین
Bahasa Melayu: Republik Rakyat China
Baso Minangkabau: Republik Rakyaik Cino
Mirandés: China
мокшень: Китай
монгол: Хятад улс
Nāhuatl: China
Dorerin Naoero: Tsiene
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Jaina (matanitu)
Nedersaksies: Volksrippebliek China
नेपाल भाषा: चीन
Napulitano: Cina
Nordfriisk: China
Norfuk / Pitkern: Shiina
norsk nynorsk: Folkerepublikken Kina
олык марий: Китай
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଚୀନ
Oromoo: Chaayinaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Xitoy
پنجابی: چین
Papiamentu: China
Перем Коми: Кина
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ចិន
Piemontèis: Cin-a
Plattdüütsch: Volksrepubliek China
Ποντιακά: Κίνα
português: China
Qaraqalpaqsha: Qıtay
qırımtatarca: Çin Halq Cumhuriyeti
reo tahiti: Tinitō
Romani: China
Gagana Samoa: Saina
Sängö: Sînä
sardu: Cina
Sesotho: Tjhaena
Sesotho sa Leboa: Tšhaena
shqip: Kina
sicilianu: Cina
සිංහල: චීනය
سنڌي: چين
SiSwati: IShayina
slovenčina: Čína
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Срѣдинꙗнє
Soomaaliga: Shiinaha
Sranantongo: Sneysa
српски / srpski: Кина
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kina
suomi: Kiina
svenska: Kina
Tagalog: Tsina
தமிழ்: சீனா
Taqbaylit: Ccinwa
татарча/tatarça: Кытай
తెలుగు: చైనా
tetun: Xina
lea faka-Tonga: Siaina
Tshivenda: China
Türkçe: Çin
Twi: China
тыва дыл: Кыдат
удмурт: Китай
اردو: چین
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: جۇڭخۇا خەلق جۇمھۇرىيىتى
vepsän kel’: Kitai
Tiếng Việt: Trung Quốc
Volapük: Tsyinän
West-Vlams: China
Xitsonga: Chayina
ייִדיש: כינע
डोटेली: चीन देश
ГӀалгӀай: Чинхойче
Kabɩyɛ: Siini
Lingua Franca Nova: Xina