Origin & Development
During the late 1800s, the Ottoman Empire controlled most of the Middle East. The Middle East, at the time, was very diverse. Many different ethnic and cultural groups of people lived in the region. By 1900, the Ottoman Empire was in decline and many of the different groups of people living in the Empire wanted to form independent governments managed by people living within their own communities. 
One group that began to form their own ideas about a self-governed or self determined community were Arabs. Many educated Arab students and professors working at universities, like Al-Azhar University, began to publish magazines and form clubs promoting the idea of a unified Arab community or nation.  These ideas became very popular across Arab regions of the former Ottoman Empire. By 1913, Arab organizations from all around the Middle East met to form the first
Arab Congress in Paris, France. At the Congress, Arabs from around the Ottoman Empire discussed the possibility of freeing themselves from the Ottoman Empire and establishing Arab-governed countries. 
The Ottoman Empire responded to the Arab Congress by punishing Arab nationalists. In some territories of the Ottoman Empire, Arab nationalists were put in jail and even killed for their activities. 
During World War One, many Arab groups support the Allied powers’ military campaign against the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed, and the Allied Powers met together to decide what would happen to the territory formerly under Ottoman control. Despite supporting the Allies during the war, many Arab countries were not granted their freedom by the Allies. Still eager to gain Independence, Arabs living in occupied countries began to form ideas about what a free Arab state would look like. These ideas would eventually become the backbone of Pan Arabism.