Palmyra

Palmyra
Tdmr2.png
تدمر
Ruins of Palmyra
The ruins of Palmyra in 2010
Palmyra is located in the center of Syria
Palmyra is located in the center of Syria
Shown within Syria
Alternate nameTadmor
LocationTadmur, Homs Governorate, Syria
RegionSyrian Desert
Coordinates34°33′05″N 38°16′05″E / 34°33′05″N 38°16′05″E / 34.55139; 38.26806
PeriodsMiddle Bronze Age to Modern
CulturesAramaic, Arabic, Greco-Roman
Site notes
ConditionRuined
OwnershipPublic
ManagementSyrian Ministry of Culture
Public accessInaccessible (in a war zone)
Official nameSite of Palmyra
TypeCultural
Criteriai, ii, iv
Designated1980 (1980) (4th RegionArab States
Endangered2013 (2013)–present.[1]

Palmyra was an ancient Arabian city in central Syria. It is in an oasis 215 kilometres (134 miles) northeast of Damascus, and 180 km (110 mi) southwest of the Euphrates. It was an important city in ancient times. It had long been a place for travellers to stop when crossing the Syrian Desert. The city was founded some time during the 2nd millennium BC. It became abandoned around 1929. The site was made a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.

The Semitic name of the city is Tadmur (Arabic: تدمر‎). In Aramaic,[2] it means "a city that cannot be defeated".[3] The earliest written reference to the city by this name is on Babylonian tablets found in Mari. It is still known as Tadmur in Arabic.[4][5]

The people of Palmyra worshipped many gods and goddesses from Mesopotamia, Syria, Arabia and Greece.[6] They built a series of temples and large monuments containing funerary art, or art representing the dead. Palmyrans originally spoke Aramaic, but later began speaking Greek. The area was later made a part of the Roman Empire. Between the years 260 and 273, Odaenathus and his wife Zenobia used Palmyra as the capital of the Palmyrene Empire. This period of history is called the Crisis of the Third Century.

By the time of the Muslim conquests, several Arab tribes were living in Palmyra.[7]

The city lost its importance after the 16th century. It was fully abandoned by 1929, during the Ottoman Empire. There is a new town of the same name nearby to the south of the ruins.[8]

Notes

  1. Baghdadi 2015.
  2. Hillers & Cussini, Delbert & Eleonora (2005). A journey to Palmyra: collected essays to remember Delbert R. Hillers. Brill. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-90-04-12418-9.
  3. Palmyra (Syria) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 2008-11-16.
  4. "Tadmor: Syria". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  5. "Tedmor: Syria (ancient site)". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  6. Teixidor, Javier (1979). The pantheon of Palmyra. Brill Archive. p. 34, 59, 62. ISBN 978-90-04-05987-0.
  7. Shahîd‏, Irfan. Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century, Volume 2, Part 2. p. 256.
  8. "Tedmor: Syria (populated place)". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Palmyra
العربية: تدمر
asturianu: Palmira
azərbaycanca: Palmira
বাংলা: পালমিরা
Bân-lâm-gú: Palmyra
беларуская: Пальміра
български: Палмира
català: Palmira
Чӑвашла: Пальмира
čeština: Palmýra
Cymraeg: Palmyra
dansk: Palmyra
Deutsch: Palmyra
Ελληνικά: Παλμύρα
English: Palmyra
español: Palmira
Esperanto: Palmira
euskara: Palmira
فارسی: پالمیرا
français: Palmyre
Gaeilge: Palmyra
galego: Palmira
한국어: 팔미라
հայերեն: Պալմիրա
हिन्दी: पलमीरा
hrvatski: Palmira
Bahasa Indonesia: Tadmur
íslenska: Palmýra
italiano: Palmira
עברית: תדמור
ქართული: პალმირა
қазақша: Пальмира
Latina: Palmyra
latviešu: Palmīra
Lëtzebuergesch: Palmyra
lietuvių: Palmyra (Sirija)
magyar: Palmüra
მარგალური: პალმირა (სირია)
مازِرونی: پالمیرا
Nederlands: Palmyra (Syrië)
नेपाली: पलमेरा
日本語: パルミラ
нохчийн: Пальмира
norsk: Palmyra
norsk nynorsk: Palmyra
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Palmira
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਪਾਲਮੀਰਾ
پښتو: پالمیرا
português: Palmira
română: Palmira
русский: Пальмира
Scots: Palmira
shqip: Palmira
sicilianu: Palmira
slovenčina: Palmýra
slovenščina: Palmira
کوردی: تەدمور
српски / srpski: Палмира
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Palmira
suomi: Palmyra
svenska: Palmyra
தமிழ்: பல்மைரா
татарча/tatarça: Palmira
Türkçe: Palmira
українська: Пальміра
اردو: تدمر
Tiếng Việt: Palmyra
中文: 巴尔米拉