Osama bin Laden

Osama Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden portrait.jpg
Osama bin Laden in the 1990s
Osama bin Mohammed bin A wad bin Laden

(1957-03-10)10 March 1957
Died2 May 2011(2011-05-02) (aged 54)
Cause of deathShooting
NationalitySaudi Arabian
Known forClaimed responsibility for September 11 attacks
Height6'4" to 6'6"
WeightAbout 73 kg (161 lb)
SuccessorAyman al-Zawahiri
Spouse(s)Amal al-Sadah (m. 2000–2011)
Siham Sabar (m. 1987–2011)
Khairiah Sabar (m. 1985–2011)
Khadijah Sharif (m. 1983–1990)
Najwa bin Laden (m. 1974–2001)
Parent(s)Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden,
Hamida al-Attas
Military career
Allegiance al-Qaeda
Years of service1988–2011
Battles/warsSoviet war in Afghanistan

Global War on Terrorism:

Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادنUsāmah bin Muḥammad bin ‘Awaḍ bin Lādin; 10 March 1957 – 2 May 2011) was the founder of al-Qaeda, the Sunni militant Islamist organization, that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets.[1][2][3] He was a Saudi Arabian, a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite.[4]

He was born in the bin Laden family to billionaire Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden in Saudi Arabia. He studied there in college until 1979, when he joined the mujahideen forces in Pakistan against the Soviets in Afghanistan. He helped to fund the mujahideen by funneling arms, money and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, also gaining popularity from many Arabs.[5] In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda.[6] He was banished from Saudi Arabia in 1992, and shifted his base to Sudan, until US pressure forced him to leave Sudan in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.[7] Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings.[8][9][10]

From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the War on Terror, as the FBI placed a $25 million reward on him in their search for him. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency operatives in a covert operation ordered by U.S. President Barack Obama.[11][12]

Beliefs and ideology

Bin Laden probably believed that the restoration of Sharia law would set things right in the Muslim world, and that all other ideologies—"pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy"—must be opposed.[13] These beliefs, along with violent expansive jihad, have sometimes been called Qutbism.[14]

He believed Afghanistan under the rule of Mullah Omar's Taliban was "the only Islamic country" in the Muslim world.[15] Bin Laden had consistently talked about his belief in the need for violent jihad to make right what he believed are injustices against Muslims perpetrated by the United States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states,[16] the need to eliminate the state of Israel, and the necessity of forcing the US to withdraw from the Middle East. He had also called on Americans to "reject the immoral acts of fornication and homosexuality, intoxicants (e.g. alcohol), gambling, and usury" in an October 2002 letter.[17]

One of Bin Laden's most infamous beliefs was that civilians, including women and children, are legitimate targets of jihad.[18][19] Bin Laden was antisemitic, and had delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: "These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next".[20] Shia Muslims have been listed along with "Heretics,... America and Israel," as the four principal "enemies of Islam" at the ideology classes of bin Laden's Al-Qaeda organization.[21]p303

In keeping with Wahhabi beliefs (the Saudi type of Islam),[22] bin Laden opposed music on religious grounds,[21]p167 and his attitude towards technology was mixed. He was interested in "earth-moving machinery and genetic engineering of plants" on the one hand, but rejected "chilled water" on the other.[21]p172

His viewpoints and methods of achieving them led to him been designated as a terrorist by scholars,[23][24] journalists from the New York Times,[25][26] the British Broadcasting Corporation,[27] Qatari news station Al Jazeera,[28] analysts such as Peter Bergen,[29] Michael Scheuer,[30] Marc Sageman,[31] and Bruce Hoffman[32][33] and he was indicted on terrorism charges by law enforcement agencies in Madrid, New York City, and Tripoli.[34] He stayed in hiding until he was killed by the United States in Pakistan, in May 2011.

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