Operating system

Ubuntu GNU/Linux, a free operating system

An operating system (or OS) is a group of computer programs, device drivers, kernels, and other software that let people interact with a computer. It manages computer hardware and software resources. It provides common services for computer programs. An OS can be small (like MenuetOS), or large (like Microsoft Windows). Different operating systems can be used for different purposes. Some are used for everyday things like on a personal computer. Others are mobile operating systems or are used for specialized work.

An operating system has many jobs. It makes sure that all the programs can use the CPU, system memory, displays, input devices, and other hardware. Some also give the user an interface to use a computer. An OS is also responsible for sending data to other computers or devices on a network.

Some examples of commonly used operating systems are macOS, Linux, and Microsoft Windows.


The first operating system was used with the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).[1] It was very hard to make ENIAC do work. How the operating system worked was based on how the switches and cables were put together and depending on this factor punch cards would make a result. While this was an operating system of a kind, it is not what is thought of as one in modern times.

Video: Using an old UNIX system.

The first operating system that looked and felt like operating systems in the modern age was UNIX, made in 1969 by Bell Labs. It had a small kernel and many tiny programs that could be put together to work with user input and data. Many of its features were taken from Multics, an older operating system made in 1964.[1]

Other Languages
Acèh: OS
Alemannisch: Betriebssystem
العربية: نظام تشغيل
azərbaycanca: Əməliyyat sistemi
Bân-lâm-gú: Chok-gia̍p hē-thóng
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Апэрацыйная сыстэма
davvisámegiella: Operatiivavuogádat
Esperanto: Operaciumo
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Chok-ngia̍p hì-thúng
한국어: 운영 체제
hornjoserbsce: Dźěłowy system
Bahasa Indonesia: Sistem operasi
Interlingue: Operativ systema
íslenska: Stýrikerfi
Lëtzebuergesch: Betribssystem
Lingua Franca Nova: Sistem de opera
македонски: Оперативен систем
Bahasa Melayu: Sistem pengendalian
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Chŏ̤-cáuk hiê-tūng
Nederlands: Besturingssysteem
नेपाल भाषा: अपरेटिङ सिस्टम
norsk nynorsk: Operativsystem
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Ishlatuv tizimi
Pälzisch: Betriebssystem
Plattdüütsch: Bedriefssystem
português: Sistema operativo
Qaraqalpaqsha: Operatsion sistema
Ripoarisch: Bedriefsystem
русиньскый: Операчна сістема
slovenčina: Operačný systém
slovenščina: Operacijski sistem
Soomaaliga: Operating system
српски / srpski: Оперативни систем
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Operativni sistem
Basa Sunda: Sistim Operasi
Taqbaylit: Anagraw n wammud
татарча/tatarça: Операцион система
тоҷикӣ: Системомил
Tiếng Việt: Hệ điều hành
吴语: 操作系统
粵語: 作業系統
žemaitėška: Uoperacėnė sėstema
中文: 操作系统