Nitrogen

Nitrogen,  7N
Liquidnitrogen.jpg
General properties
Appearancecolorless gas, liquid or solid
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)[14.0064314.00728] conventional: 14.007
Nitrogen in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson


N

P
carbonnitrogenoxygen
Atomic number (Z)7
Groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
Periodperiod 2
Blockp-block
Element category  reactive nonmetal
Electron configuration[He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell
2, 5
Physical properties
Phase at STPgas
Melting point63.15 K ​(−210.00 °C, ​−346.00 °F)
Boiling point77.355 K ​(−195.795 °C, ​−320.431 °F)
Density (at STP)1.2504 g/L[1] at 0 °C, 1013 mbar
when liquid (at b.p.)0.808 g/cm3
Triple point63.151 K, ​12.52 kPa
Critical point126.192 K, 3.3958 MPa
Heat of fusion(N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization(N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity(N2) 29.124 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)374146536277
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5 (a strongly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 3.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius155 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of nitrogen
Other properties
Crystal structure ​hexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for nitrogen
Speed of sound353 m/s (gas, at 27 °C)
Thermal conductivity25.83×10−3 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
CAS Number17778-88-0
7727-37-9 (N2)
History
DiscoveryDaniel Rutherford (1772)
Named byJean-Antoine Chaptal (1790)
Main isotopes of nitrogen
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
Nsyn9.965 minεC
14N99.6%stable
15N0.4%stable
| references

Nitrogen is a nonmetal chemical element. The atmosphere contains more than 78 percent of nitrogen. It has the chemical symbol N and atomic number 7. Its stable inside typically contains 14 nucleons (7 protons and 7 neutrons). It has 5 electrons in its outer shell.

Properties

Cup of liquid nitrogen

Nitrogen is a colorless odorless gas at normal temperature. It is normally attached to another nitrogen atom, making a nitrogen molecule (N2). This bond is very strong. That is why many explosives contain nitrogen. The bond is broken when the explosive is made. When it explodes the bond forms, releasing a lot of energy.

It turns into a liquid at -195.8°C and turns into a solid at -210°C. If it is compressed, it can be turned into a liquid without making it cold.

It usually does not combine with other atoms because its strong bond prevents it from reacting. Lithium is one of the few chemical elements that react with nitrogen without being heated. Magnesium can burn in nitrogen. Nitrogen also makes blue electric sparks. The blue color is caused by the atoms being excited. When they get normal again, they release light. When nitrogen is excited, it reacts with many things that it does not normally react with.

Electric spark through a tube filled with nitrogen
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Stikstof
Alemannisch: Stickstoff
አማርኛ: ናይትሮጅን
العربية: نيتروجين
aragonés: Nitrochén
armãneashti: Azotu
অসমীয়া: নাইট্ৰ'জেন
asturianu: Nitróxenu
azərbaycanca: Azot
تۆرکجه: نیتروژن
Bân-lâm-gú: Chit-sò͘
башҡортса: Азот
беларуская: Азот
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Азот
भोजपुरी: नाइट्रोजन
български: Азот
བོད་ཡིག: ཟེ་རླུང་།
bosanski: Dušik
brezhoneg: Nitrogen
català: Nitrogen
Чӑвашла: Азот
Cebuano: Nitroheno
čeština: Dusík
chiShona: Nitrogen
corsu: Azotu
Cymraeg: Nitrogen
dansk: Kvælstof
Deutsch: Stickstoff
eesti: Lämmastik
Ελληνικά: Άζωτο
English: Nitrogen
эрзянь: Азот
español: Nitrógeno
Esperanto: Nitrogeno
euskara: Nitrogeno
فارسی: نیتروژن
Fiji Hindi: Nitrogen
føroyskt: Køvievni
français: Azote
Frysk: Stikstof
furlan: Azôt
Gaeilge: Nítrigin
Gaelg: Neetragien
Gàidhlig: Naitridean
galego: Nitróxeno
贛語:
Gĩkũyũ: Nitrogen
ગુજરાતી: નત્રલવાયુ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Tham
хальмг: Нитроҗен
한국어: 질소
Hawaiʻi: Naikokene
հայերեն: Ազոտ
हिन्दी: नाइट्रोजन
hornjoserbsce: Dusyk
hrvatski: Dušik
Ido: Nitro
Ilokano: Nitroheno
Bahasa Indonesia: Nitrogen
interlingua: Nitrogeno
Ирон: Азот
íslenska: Köfnunarefni
italiano: Azoto
עברית: חנקן
Basa Jawa: Nitrogen
Kabɩyɛ: Azɔɔtɩ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಸಾರಜನಕ
Kapampangan: Nitrogen
ქართული: აზოტი
қазақша: Азот
Kiswahili: Nitrojeni
коми: Азот
Kreyòl ayisyen: Azòt
kurdî: Nîtrojen
Кыргызча: Азот
кырык мары: Азот
Latina: Nitrogenium
latviešu: Slāpeklis
Lëtzebuergesch: Stéckstoff
лезги: Азот
lietuvių: Azotas
Ligure: Azoto
Limburgs: Stikstof
lingála: Azoti
Livvinkarjala: Azot
la .lojban.: trano
lumbaart: Azoto
magyar: Nitrogén
македонски: Азот
മലയാളം: നൈട്രജൻ
Malti: Ażotu
Māori: Hauota
मराठी: नत्रवायू
Bahasa Melayu: Nitrogen
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dâng
монгол: Азот
မြန်မာဘာသာ: နိုက်ထရိုဂျင်
Nāhuatl: Ehēcatehuiltic
Nederlands: Stikstof (element)
नेपाली: नाइट्रोजन
नेपाल भाषा: नाइट्रोजन
日本語: 窒素
Nordfriisk: Stikstoof
norsk: Nitrogen
norsk nynorsk: Nitrogen
Novial: Nitrogene
occitan: Azòt
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Azot
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਨਾਈਟਰੋਜਨ
پنجابی: نائیٹروجن
Papiamentu: Nitrogeno
Patois: Naichojen
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អាសូត
Piemontèis: Asòt
Plattdüütsch: Stickstoff
polski: Azot
português: Azoto
qırımtatarca: Azot
Ripoarisch: Stickstoff
română: Azot
Runa Simi: Qullpachaq
русиньскый: Азот
русский: Азот
संस्कृतम्: नैट्रोजन्
Scots: Nitrogen
Seeltersk: Stikstof
shqip: Azoti
sicilianu: Azzotu
slovenčina: Dusík
slovenščina: Dušik
Soomaaliga: Nitrojiin
کوردی: نایترۆجین
српски / srpski: Азот
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dušik
Basa Sunda: Nitrogén
suomi: Typpi
svenska: Kväve
Tagalog: Nitroheno
தமிழ்: நைட்ரசன்
татарча/tatarça: Азот
తెలుగు: నత్రజని
тоҷикӣ: Азот
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎾᎢᏠᏤᏂ
Türkçe: Azot
українська: Азот
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئازوت
vèneto: Azoto
vepsän kel’: Azot
Tiếng Việt: Nitơ
文言:
Winaray: Nitroheno
吴语:
ייִדיש: אזאט
Yorùbá: Nítrójìn
粵語:
žemaitėška: Azuots
中文: