Napoléon II was born in Paris in 1811. In 1814, Napoleon I was defeated by the
Sixth Coalition and then forced to resign by his own officers. Napoleon I originally wanted Napoleon II to succeed him, but this was rejected by the coalition. Napoleon II and his mother went into exile in Austria, while Napoleon I was exiled to Elba. In 1815, Napoleon I escaped and retook control of France, but was forced to resign again after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
Emperor of the French
Napoleon was arguably the Emperor of the French in late June and early July 1815.
Life in Austria
Napoleon II as Duke of Reichstadt
Napoleon spent most of his life in Austria, where he was known as Franz. He became the Duke of Reichstadt at the age of 7 and joined the
Austrian Army at the age of 12.
Napoleon enjoyed a close relationship with
Princess Sophie of Bavaria. It has been claimed that he was the father of Sophie's son, the future Maximilian I of Mexico, but this is widely rejected by historians.
Napoleon died of tuberculosis on July 22, 1832.
In 1940, Adolf Hitler had Napoleon's remains moved from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. His remains were buried next to his father's for some time, but were later moved to the lower church.