Mutation

Occasional errors may occur during DNA replication.
Chromosome mutations

In biology, a mutation is a change in the genetic material. This means changes to the DNA or to the chromosomes which carry the DNA. These changes are heritable (can be passed on to the next generation) unless they have lethal effects.

Mutations can happen for several reasons. It can happen because of errors when meiosis produces the gametes (eggs & sperms). Damage by radiation, or by certain chemicals may cause mutations. Mutations occur at random.

Also, by derivation, an individual carrying the mutation may be called a mutant or a mutation. So is the trait (character) most obviously affected by the mutation.[1]

Types of mutation

Gene duplication causes different lengths at a single locus (allele). Shows variation in one gene in six individuals

DNA mutations

When DNA is copied mistakes are sometimes made – these are called mutations. There are four main types of mutations:

  • Deletion, where one or more DNA bases are left out.
  • Insertion, where one or more extra base is put in.
  • Substitution, where one or more bases are substituted for another base in the sequence.
  • Duplication, where whole genes are duplicated.

Chromosome mutations

These terms are explained in the third diagram.

  • Deletion: a piece of chromosome is lost, together with any genes which may be on it.
  • Duplication: part of a chromosome is repeated
  • Inversion: part of a chromosome is reversed end to end
  • Insertion: a smaller chromosome is inserted into a longer chromosome
  • Translocation: part of a chromosome gets moved onto another chromosome
Other Languages
العربية: طفرة (أحياء)
asturianu: Mutación
azərbaycanca: Mutasiya
Bân-lâm-gú: Tu̍t-piàn
беларуская: Мутацыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мутацыя
български: Мутация
bosanski: Mutacija
català: Mutació
čeština: Mutace
dansk: Mutation
Deutsch: Mutation
eesti: Mutatsioon
Ελληνικά: Μετάλλαξη
English: Mutation
español: Mutación
Esperanto: Mutacio
euskara: Mutazio
فارسی: جهش
Gaeilge: Sóchán
galego: Mutación
한국어: 돌연변이
Հայերեն: Մուտացիա
hrvatski: Mutacija
Ido: Mutaco
Bahasa Indonesia: Mutasi
íslenska: Stökkbreyting
עברית: מוטציה
Basa Jawa: Mutasi
ಕನ್ನಡ: ವ್ಯತ್ಯಯನ
ქართული: მუტაცია
қазақша: Мутация
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mitasyon
Кыргызча: Мутация
latviešu: Mutācija
lietuvių: Mutacija
magyar: Mutáció
македонски: Мутација
Bahasa Melayu: Mutasi
монгол: Мутац
Nederlands: Mutatie (biologie)
日本語: 突然変異
Nordfriisk: Mutatjuun
norsk: Mutasjon
norsk nynorsk: Mutasjon
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Mutatsiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਿਊਟੇਸ਼ਨ
polski: Mutacja
português: Mutação
русский: Мутация
Scots: Mutation
shqip: Mutacioni
slovenčina: Mutácia (genetika)
slovenščina: Mutacija
کوردی: بازدان
српски / srpski: Мутација
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Mutacija
suomi: Mutaatio
svenska: Mutation
Tagalog: Mutasyon
Türkçe: Mutasyon
українська: Мутація
اردو: طَفرَہ
Tiếng Việt: Đột biến sinh học
Winaray: Mutasyon
吴语: 突变
ייִדיש: מוטאציע
Zazaki: Mutasyon
中文: 突变