Monkey

Monkey
Fossil range: Late Eocene–Present[1]
Wild toque macaque (Macaca sinica) in Yala National Park, Sri Lanka
Wild toque macaque (Macaca sinica) in Yala National Park, Sri Lanka
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Mammalia
Order:Primates
Suborder:Haplorhini
Infraorder:Simiiformes[a]
Haeckel, 1866
Included groups
Callitrichidae
Cebidae
Aotidae
Pitheciidae
Atelidae
Cercopithecidae
†Parapithecidae
Cladistically included but traditionally excluded groups

Hominoidea

Monkeys are tree-dwelling (arboreal) simians. They are in the primate order. Monkeys are intelligent, social animals. Most monkeys have a tail, even if it is a short one.[3]

The word "monkey" is a common-language term which is not used in taxonomy. It includes two rather different groups of primates. The big distinction is between Old World monkeys and New World monkeys. Some examples of monkeys are macaques, baboons, guenons and marmosets.

Both these groups are in the infraorder Simiiformes. That infraorder also includes the great apes and man.

Some monkeys live almost entirely in trees. Others live partly on the ground. Monkeys are mainly vegetarian, with a strong preference for fruit. However, they may eat a wide range of other food, including insects. Monkeys can live in forests and savannahs, but not in deserts. Some can live in snowy mountains, but more live in rainforests. There are none in the rainforests of Australia and New Guinea. Apparently they never reached those islands.

Some monkeys are small, about 15 centimetres (6 in) long and 120 grams (4.2 oz) in weight. Other monkeys are much larger, about 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) long and 35 kilograms (77 lb) in weight. A group of monkeys is called a "troop" of monkeys or a "tribe" of monkeys.

The two groups of monkeys live in different places: the New World Monkeys in South America and the Old World Monkeys live mainly in Africa and Asia.[5] New World Monkeys are often smaller than Old World Monkeys.[6] Monkeys have long arms and legs to help them swing from trees. Some monkeys' tails can wrap tightly around branches, almost like a "fifth limb".[6] This type of tail is 'prehensile'.

The smallest known monkey is the pygmy marmoset. It is about 14-16cm in size (without the tail). It weighs about 120 grams. It lives in the treetops of rainforests in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. The largest known monkey is the mandrill. It can grow to about 1 m in size. Adults weigh up to 35 kg. The monkeys often climb with the help of their tails.

The word monkey might have come from a popular German story, "Roman de Renart" (Reynard the Fox). In there, the name of the son of Martin the Ape is Moneke.[7]

In Africa, monkeys can be sold as "bushmeat" (meat of wild animals).[8] Monkey brains are eaten in some parts of Africa, South Asia, and China.[9]

References

  1. Fleagle, J.; Gilbert, C. Rowe, N.; Myers, M., eds. "Primate Evolution: John Fleagle and Chris Gilbert". All the World's Primates. Primate Conservation, Inc. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  2. Groves 2008, pp. 92–93.
  3. "Monkey". kids.britannica.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  4. Dawkins, Richard (2004). The ancestor's tale: a pilgrimage to the dawn of evolution. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 140. ISBN 9780618005833. Retrieved 2008-08-24.
  5. "Monkeys at Animal Corner". animalcorner.co.uk. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Monkey : Facts, Pictures, Video : Animal Planet". animal.discovery.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  7. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  8. "Primate Bushmeat : Populations Exposed To Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  9. "7 foods for the fearless eater - foodwine - TODAYshow.com". today.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved 31 December 2010.

Notes

  1. When Carl Linnaeus defined the genus Simia in the , it included all non-human monkeys and apes (simians).[2] Although "monkey" was never a taxonomic name, and is instead a vernacular name for a paraphyletic group, its members fall under the infraorder Simiiformes.
Other Languages
адыгабзэ: Мамун
Afrikaans: Aap
አማርኛ: ዝንዠሮ
العربية: سعدان
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܘܦܐ
Avañe'ẽ: Ka'i
Aymar aru: K'usillu
azərbaycanca: Meymun
বাংলা: বানর
Bahasa Banjar: Warik
Bân-lâm-gú: Kâu
беларуская: Малпы
भोजपुरी: बानर
བོད་ཡིག: སྤྲེའུ།
bosanski: Majmun
brezhoneg: Marmouz (loen)
català: Micos
čeština: Opice
chiShona: Shoko
chiTumbuka: Munkhwele
Cymraeg: Mwnci
dansk: Abe
davvisámegiella: Áhppa
डोटेली: बानर
Ελληνικά: Μαϊμού
English: Monkey
español: Mono
Esperanto: Simio
euskara: Tximino
فارسی: میمون
français: Singe
Gaeilge: Moncaí
Gaelg: Apag
Gàidhlig: Muncaidh
ГӀалгӀай: Маймалаш
ગુજરાતી: વાંદરો
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: बंदर
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hèu-è
хальмг: Мөчн
한국어: 원숭이
Hausa: Biri
հայերեն: Կապիկներ
हिन्दी: बंदर
Ido: Simio
Bahasa Indonesia: Monyet
עברית: קופים
Basa Jawa: Kethèk
Kabɩyɛ: Tɩgbayʋ
kalaallisut: Aapakaaq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೋತಿ
қазақша: Маймыл
Kinyarwanda: Inguge
Kreyòl ayisyen: Makak
кырык мары: Маймыл
Ladino: Maymona
лакку: Маймун
Latina: Simia
latviešu: Pērtiķi
лезги: Маймун
lietuvių: Beždžionės
Lingua Franca Nova: Simia
македонски: Мајмун
മലയാളം: കുരങ്ങ്
मराठी: माकड
مصرى: قرد
مازِرونی: شادی
Bahasa Melayu: Monyet
Baso Minangkabau: Cigak
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gàu
монгол: Сармагчин
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မျောက်
Nāhuatl: Ozomahtli
Dorerin Naoero: Maki
नेपाली: बाँदर
नेपाल भाषा: माकः
日本語: サル
нохчийн: Маймал
norsk: Apekatter
Nouormand: Marmoûset
occitan: Monard
олык марий: Маймыл
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਂਦਰ
پنجابی: باندر
português: Macaco
română: Maimuță
Runa Simi: K'usillu
русский: Обезьяны
Scots: Pug
shqip: Majmuni
sicilianu: Scimia
سنڌي: باندر
slovenščina: Opica
کوردی: مەيموون
Sranantongo: Yapi yapi
српски / srpski: Мајмун
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Maјmun
Basa Sunda: Monyét
suomi: Apinat
Tagalog: Unggoy
தமிழ்: குரங்கு
Taqbaylit: Ibki
తెలుగు: కోతి
ไทย: ลิง
тоҷикӣ: Маймун
Tsetsêhestâhese: Mákohe
ತುಳು: ಮಂಗೆ
Türkçe: Maymun
удмурт: Обезьян
українська: Мавпи
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مايمۇن
Vahcuengh: Lingz
Tiếng Việt: Khỉ
walon: Séndje
Winaray: Amo
Wolof: Golo
ייִדיש: מאלפע
Yorùbá: Ọ̀bọ
粵語: 馬騮
中文: