Middle Ages

The Middle Ages are a time period in European history. They started around the year 476 CE when the Western Roman Empire ended,[1] and continued until around the time Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in 1492. The 'Middle Ages' are called this because it is the time between the fall of Imperial Rome and the beginning of the Early modern Europe. This period of time is also known as the Medieval Age, the Dark Ages (due to the lost technology of the Roman empire), or the Age of Faith (because of the rise of Christianity and Islam). When used narrowly, the term "Dark Ages" refer only to very early period, from 476 to 800 (when Charlemagne became king).

The fall of the Roman Empire, and the invasions of barbarian tribes, devastated European towns and cities and their inhabitants. The Dark Ages are given this name because Europe was in disarray in comparison to the orderliness of classical antiquity and life was short and poor. Since few could write, little is known about it. Much of the knowledge that the Romans used (science, technology, medicine, and literature) was lost. The Dark Ages period was marked by mass migrations, wars and plagues. This lasted some 300 years until the development of feudalism partly diminished the continuous violence. Emperor Charlemagne was crowned in 800, and he promoted order, education and civilization. Europe began slowly regain what was lost during those centuries.

During the Middle Ages, Europe changed as the remains of the great Western Roman Empire slowly became independent, unified nation states including England, France (The Franks), Germany (Germania), Hungary, Spain and Portugal.

Byzantium: The other side of Rome

Fall of Constantinople

Meanwhile, the remains of Eastern Rome had become the Byzantine Empire, which was started by Roman emperor Constantine in 330, and likewise had a capital city named Constantinople. The Byzantine empire controlled Asia Minor and Northern Africa, and sometimes Southern Spain and southern Italy, but its lands were slowly eaten away by enemies like the Turks and the Franks.

As a walled city on a peninsula the city of Constantinople was difficult to attack. The Ottoman Turks eventually seized Constantinople in 1453. They called the city by its present-day name, Istanbul. The Fall of Constantinople is sometimes called the end of the Middle Age.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Middeleeue
Alemannisch: Mittelalter
aragonés: Edat Meya
arpetan: Moyen Âjo
asturianu: Edá Media
azərbaycanca: Orta əsrlər
تۆرکجه: اورتا عصرلر
বাংলা: মধ্যযুগ
Bân-lâm-gú: Tiong-sè-kí
башҡортса: Урта быуаттар
беларуская: Сярэдневякоўе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сярэднявечча
български: Средновековие
Boarisch: Middloita
bosanski: Srednji vijek
brezhoneg: Krennamzer
буряад: Дунда зуун
català: Edat mitjana
čeština: Středověk
Deutsch: Mittelalter
dolnoserbski: Srjejźowěk
eesti: Keskaeg
Ελληνικά: Μεσαίωνας
English: Middle Ages
español: Edad Media
Esperanto: Mezepoko
estremeñu: Edá Meia
euskara: Erdi Aroa
فارسی: قرون وسطی
Fiji Hindi: Middle Ages
føroyskt: Miðøldin
français: Moyen Âge
Frysk: Midsiuwen
Gaeilge: An Mheánaois
Gàidhlig: Meadhan-aoisean
galego: Idade Media
贛語: 中世紀
한국어: 중세
հայերեն: Միջնադար
हिन्दी: मध्ययुग
hornjoserbsce: Srjedźowěk
hrvatski: Srednji vijek
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad Pertengahan
interlingua: Medievo
íslenska: Miðaldir
italiano: Medioevo
Basa Jawa: Abad Tengahan
kaszëbsczi: Strzédnowiek
kernowek: Osow Kres
Kiswahili: Zama za Kati
Kreyòl ayisyen: Mwayenaj
Кыргызча: Орто кылымдар
Latina: Medium aevum
latviešu: Viduslaiki
Lëtzebuergesch: Mëttelalter
lietuvių: Viduramžiai
Limburgs: Middeliewe
lumbaart: Medioévo
magyar: Középkor
македонски: Среден век
മലയാളം: മദ്ധ്യകാലം
मराठी: मध्य युग
მარგალური: შქა ოშწანურეფი
Bahasa Melayu: Zaman Pertengahan
Mirandés: Eidade Média
монгол: Дундад зуун
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အလယ်ခေတ်
Nederlands: Middeleeuwen
Nedersaksies: Middeleewn
日本語: 中世
Napulitano: Medioevo
Nordfriisk: Madelääler
norsk nynorsk: Mellomalderen
Nouormand: Mouoyen Âge
occitan: Edat Mejana
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Oʻrta asr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੱਧਕਾਲ
Patois: Migl Iejiz
Picard: Moéyin Age
Piemontèis: Età ëd mes
Plattdüütsch: Middelöller
português: Idade Média
română: Evul Mediu
rumantsch: Temp medieval
русиньскый: Середновік
русский: Средние века
саха тыла: Орто үйэлэр
Seeltersk: Middeloaler
shqip: Mesjeta
sicilianu: Mediuevu
slovenčina: Stredovek
slovenščina: Srednji vek
српски / srpski: Средњи век
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Srednji vijek
suomi: Keskiaika
svenska: Medeltiden
татарча/tatarça: Урта гасырлар
Türkçe: Orta Çağ
Türkmençe: Orta asyrlar
українська: Середньовіччя
vèneto: Età de mezo
Tiếng Việt: Trung Cổ
Võro: Keskaig
walon: Moyinådje
West-Vlams: Middelêeuwn
吴语: 中世
ייִדיש: מיטל אלטער
粵語: 中世紀
Zeêuws: Middeleêuwen
žemaitėška: Vėdoromžē
中文: 中世纪
Lingua Franca Nova: Eda medieval