Mexico
English: Mexico

United Mexican States

Estados Unidos Mexicanos [1]  (Spanish)
Seal of the Government of Mexico of Mexico
Seal of the Government of Mexico
Anthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano"
Mexican National Anthem
National seal:
Seal of the United Mexican States Seal of the Government of Mexico.svg
MEX orthographic.svg
Capital
and largest city
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433; -99.133
• President
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (MORENA)
• President of the Senate
Martí Batres
• President of the Chamber of Deputies
Porfirio Muñoz Ledo
LegislatureCongress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
from Spain
• Declared
September 16, 1810
• Recognized
September 27, 1821
Area
• Total
1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi) (14th)
• Water (%)
2.5
Population
• 2010 census
112,322,758[8] (11th)
• Density
57/km2 (147.6/sq mi) (142nd)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$1.629 trillion[9] (11th)
• Per capita
$15,113[10] (58th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$1.041 trillion[9] (13th)
• Per capita
$9,489[9] (58th)
Gini (2008)51.6[11]
high
HDI (2011)0.770[12]
high · 57th
CurrencyPeso (MXN)
Time zoneUTC−8 to −6 (Official Mexican Timezones)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−7 to −5 (varies)
Driving sideright
Calling code+52
ISO 3166 codeMX
Internet TLD.mx

Mexico (Spanish: México; official name: United Mexican States Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos, About this soundlisten [13]) is a country in North America. Mexico is south of Texas and other American states. Guatemala and Belize are south of Mexico. Mexico is between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

People living in Mexico or who are from there are called Mexicans. Most Mexican people speak Spanish. There are also Mexicans who speak Native American languages, like Nahuatl, Maya, and Zapotec. The capital of Mexico is Mexico City.

History

Before the Europeans came, many Native American cultures existed in Mexico. The earliest was the Olmec culture in the south. The Olmecs are famous for the large stone heads they made. On the Yucatán peninsula lived the Mayans. The Mayans lived in city states ruled by kings. The Mayans were most powerful between 200 and 900 A.D. Another powerful empire belonged to Teotihuacan. Teotihuacan was a very large city, one of the largest at that time. After Teotihuacan declined the Toltecs became powerful. Things made by the Toltecs have been found from the southern parts of the U.S. all the way to Costa Rica. A famous Toltec god is Quetzalcoatl. The Toltec culture declined too, and it was succeeded by the Aztecs. The Aztecs called their own empire Mexico. A famous Aztec king was Moctezuma II.

In 1519 the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés came to Mexico. The Aztecs thought he was the returned Quetzalcoatl, so they did not want to fight against him. Cortes allied himself with the enemies of the Aztecs. In 1521 they conquered the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan. The Aztec Empire became part of Spain. It was called New Spain.

In 1810 the Mexican priest Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican war of independence. In 1821 the Spanish finally retreated and Mexico became independent. The first leader of independent Mexico was Agustin de Iturbide. He set up the First Mexican Empire and became emperor. But the Mexicans were not happy with him, and in 1823 the country became a republic.

A man who was very important in Mexico in the early 19th century was Antonio López de Santa Anna. He was the president of Mexico 11 times. When he became a dictator, Texas declared independence (1836). The Battle of the Alamo was part of this Texas Revolution. Between 1846 and 1848 there was war between Mexico and the United States. In this war Mexico lost its large northern areas, which became the southwestern United States. After this war Santa Anna was sent away to Venezuela.

Between 1858 and 1861 there was war again, between liberals and conservatives. The liberal Benito Juárez won the war and became president afterwards. Juarez stayed president until France invaded Mexico and made Maximilian of Habsburg emperor of the Second Mexican Empire. But Maximilian was very unpopular. After more war he was executed in 1867, and Juarez became president again.

Conservatives thought Juarez had too much power. In 1876 they ousted him, and made Porfirio Díaz, a general who had won a battle against the French, president. Porfirio Díaz made the country wealthier, but the poor people became poorer. Franciso I. Madero started the Mexican Revolution in 1910.

The next 10 years the country was in chaos. There were many presidents who ruled for a short time and all kinds of people fought against each other. Famous people from this period are Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa and Francisco I. Madero. When Álvaro Obregón became president in 1920 the fighting calmed down.

In 1929 President Plutarco Elías Calles founded the National Mexican Party, PNM. The party was later renamed Institutional Revolutionary Party, PRI. The party would rule for a very long time. Most PRI presidents were not popular, it was said that they were only president to become richer themselves. An exception was president Lázaro Cárdenas. He was president between 1934 and 1940.

After several decades more and more people became unhappy with the PRI. In 1968 security forces shot at protesters, this caused several hundred deaths and became known as the Tlatelolco massacre. Another uprising was in 1994 when Zapatistas rebelled in the province Chiapas.

Mainly through ballot box fraud the PRI managed to stay into power until 2000, when Vicente Fox of the National Action Party, PAN, was elected president. In total the PRI had governed Mexico for 71 years.

Other Languages
Acèh: Mèksiko
Адыгэбзэ: Мексикэ
адыгабзэ: Мексикэ
Afrikaans: Meksiko
Alemannisch: Mexiko
አማርኛ: ሜክሲኮ
Ænglisc: Mexico
العربية: المكسيك
aragonés: Mexico
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܟܣܝܩܘ
arpetan: Mexique
অসমীয়া: মেক্সিকো
asturianu: Méxicu
Avañe'ẽ: Méhiko
Aymar aru: Mïxiku
azərbaycanca: Meksika
تۆرکجه: مکزیک
Bali: Méksiko
bamanankan: Mɛkisiki
বাংলা: মেক্সিকো
Bân-lâm-gú: Be̍k-se-ko
башҡортса: Мексика
беларуская: Мексіка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Мэксыка
भोजपुरी: मैक्सिको
Bikol Central: Mehiko
Bislama: Mexico
български: Мексико
Boarisch: Mexiko
བོད་ཡིག: མེག་སི་ཀོ།
bosanski: Meksiko
brezhoneg: Mec'hiko
буряад: Мексикэ
català: Mèxic
Чӑвашла: Мексика
Cebuano: Mehiko
čeština: Mexiko
Chamoru: Meksiku
Chavacano de Zamboanga: México
Chi-Chewa: Mexico
chiShona: Mexico
corsu: Messicu
Cymraeg: Mecsico
dansk: Mexico
davvisámegiella: Meksiko
Deitsch: Mexiko
Deutsch: Mexiko
ދިވެހިބަސް: މެކްސިކޯ
Diné bizaad: Naakaii Bikéyah
dolnoserbski: Mexiko
डोटेली: मेक्सिको
eesti: Mehhiko
Ελληνικά: Μεξικό
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Mèsic
English: Mexico
эрзянь: Мексика
español: México
Esperanto: Meksiko
estremeñu: Méjicu
euskara: Mexiko
eʋegbe: Mexico
فارسی: مکزیک
Fiji Hindi: Mexico
føroyskt: Meksiko
français: Mexique
Frysk: Meksiko
furlan: Messic
Gaeilge: Meicsiceo
Gaelg: Meksico
Gagauz: Meksika
Gàidhlig: Meagsago
galego: México
ГӀалгӀай: Мексика
贛語: 墨西哥
گیلکی: مکزیک
ગુજરાતી: મેક્સિકો
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌹𐌺𐍉
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: मेक्सिको
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Me̍t-sî-kô
한국어: 멕시코
Hawaiʻi: Mekiko
հայերեն: Մեքսիկա
हिन्दी: मेक्सिको
hornjoserbsce: Mexiko
hrvatski: Meksiko
Ido: Mexikia
Ilokano: Mehiko
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মেক্সিকো
Bahasa Indonesia: Meksiko
interlingua: Mexico
Interlingue: Mexico
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᒦᒃᓰᖂ
Iñupiak: Mexiqo
Ирон: Мексикæ
isiXhosa: Mexico
isiZulu: IMekisiko
íslenska: Mexíkó
italiano: Messico
עברית: מקסיקו
Jawa: Mèksiko
kalaallisut: Mexico
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಮೆಕ್ಸಿಕೋ
Kapampangan: Mexico
къарачай-малкъар: Мексика
ქართული: მექსიკა
kaszëbsczi: Meksyk
қазақша: Мексика
kernowek: Meksiko
Kinyarwanda: Megizike
Kiswahili: Mexiko
коми: Мексика
Kreyòl ayisyen: Meksik
kurdî: Meksîk
Кыргызча: Мексика
кырык мары: Мексика
Ladino: Meksiko
لۊری شومالی: مکزیک
latgaļu: Meksika
Latina: Mexicum
latviešu: Meksika
Lëtzebuergesch: Mexiko
лезги: Мексика
lietuvių: Meksika
Ligure: Méscico
Limburgs: Mexico
lingála: Mexiko
Lingua Franca Nova: Mexico
Livvinkarjala: Meksikku
la .lojban.: mexygu'e
lumbaart: Messich
magyar: Mexikó
македонски: Мексико
Malagasy: Meksika
മലയാളം: മെക്സിക്കോ
Malti: Messiku
Māori: Mehiko
मराठी: मेक्सिको
მარგალური: მექსიკა
مازِرونی: مکزیک
Bahasa Melayu: Mexico
Minangkabau: Meksiko
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mĕ̤k-să̤-gŏ̤
Mirandés: México
мокшень: Мексик
монгол: Мексик
မြန်မာဘာသာ: မက္ကဆီကိုနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Mexihco
Dorerin Naoero: Meketiko
Nederlands: Mexico (land)
Nedersaksies: Mexico (laand)
नेपाली: मेक्सिको
नेपाल भाषा: मेक्सिको
日本語: メキシコ
Napulitano: Messeco
нохчийн: Мексика
Nordfriisk: Meksiko
Norfuk / Pitkern: Meksikoe
norsk: Mexico
norsk nynorsk: Mexico
Nouormand: Mexique
Novial: Mexiko
occitan: Mexic
олык марий: Мексика
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ମେକ୍ସିକୋ
Oromoo: Meeksikoo
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Meksika
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮੈਕਸੀਕੋ
Pälzisch: Mexiko
Pangasinan: Mexico
پنجابی: میکسیکو
Papiamentu: Mexico
Patois: Mexiko
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ម៉ិកស៊ិក
Picard: Messike
Piemontèis: Méssich
Tok Pisin: Meksiko
Plattdüütsch: Mexiko
polski: Meksyk
português: México
Qaraqalpaqsha: Meksika
qırımtatarca: Meksika
română: Mexic
romani čhib: Mexiko
rumantsch: Mexico
Runa Simi: Mihiku
русиньскый: Мексіко
русский: Мексика
саха тыла: Мексика
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱢᱮᱠᱥᱤᱠᱳ
Gagana Samoa: Mekisikō
संस्कृतम्: मेक्सिको
sardu: Messicu
Scots: Mexico
Seeltersk: Mexiko
Sesotho sa Leboa: Mexico
shqip: Meksika
sicilianu: Mèssicu
سنڌي: ميڪسيڪو
SiSwati: IMekisikho
slovenčina: Mexiko
slovenščina: Mehika
ślůnski: Meksyk
Soomaaliga: Meksiko
کوردی: مەکسیک
Sranantongo: Meksikokondre
српски / srpski: Мексико
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Meksiko
Sunda: Méksiko
suomi: Meksiko
svenska: Mexiko
Tagalog: Mehiko
tarandíne: Messeche
татарча/tatarça: Мексика
తెలుగు: మెక్సికో
tetun: Méxiku
ትግርኛ: መክሲኮ
тоҷикӣ: Мексика
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎠᏂᏍᏆᏂ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Mé'šeeséve'ho'évenó
Türkçe: Meksika
Türkmençe: Meksika
Twi: Mesiko
тыва дыл: Мексика
удмурт: Мексика
українська: Мексика
اردو: میکسیکو
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مېكسىكا
Vahcuengh: Maegsaego
vèneto: Mèsico
vepsän kel’: Meksik
Tiếng Việt: México
Volapük: Mäxikän
Võro: Mehhigo
walon: Mecsike
文言: 墨西哥
West-Vlams: Mexico
Winaray: Mehiko
Wolof: Meksig
吴语: 墨西哥
ייִדיש: מעקסיקע
Yorùbá: Mẹ́ksíkò
粵語: 墨西哥
Zazaki: Meksika
Zeêuws: Mexico
žemaitėška: Meksėka
中文: 墨西哥