Lithium

heliumlithiumberyllium
H

Li

Na
Appearance
silvery-white (shown floating in oil)


Spectral lines of lithium
General properties
Name, symbol, numberlithium, Li, 3
Pronunciationm/ LI-thee-əm
Element categoryalkali metal
Group, period, block1, 2, s
Standard atomic weight6.94(1) g/mol
Electron configuration[He] 2s1
Electrons per shell2, 1 (Image)
Physical properties
Phasesolid
Density (near r.t.)0.534 g/cm3
Liquid density at m.p.0.512 g/cm3
Melting point453.69 K, 180.54 °C, 356.97 °F
Boiling point1615 K, 1342 °C, 2448 °F
Critical point(extrapolated)
3223 K, 67 MPa
Heat of fusion3.00 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization147.1 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity(25 °C) 24.860 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)797885995114413371610
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity0.98 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies1st: 520.2 kJ/mol
2nd: 7298.1 kJ/mol
3rd: 11815.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radius152 pm
Covalent radius128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius182 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Electrical resistivity(20 °C) 92.8 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity(300 K) 84.8 W/(m·K)
Thermal expansion(25 °C) 46 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod)(20 °C) 6000 m/s
Young's modulus4.9 GPa
Shear modulus4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus11 GPa
Mohs hardness0.6
CAS registry number7439-93-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of lithium
isoNAhalf-lifeDMDE (MeV)DP
6Li7.5%6Li is stable with 3 neutrons
7Li92.5%7Li is stable with 4 neutrons
6Li content may be as low as 3.75% in
natural samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 96.25%.

Lithium (from Greek lithos 'stone') is a soft, silver-white metal with symbol Li. It is the third chemical element in the periodic table. This means that it has 3 protons in its nucleus and 3 electrons around it. Its atomic number is 3. Its mass number is 6.94. It has two common isotopes, 6Li and 7Li. 7Li is more common. 92.5% of lithium is 7Li. Lithium is a soft silvery metal that is very reactive. It is used in lithium batteries and certain medicines.

Properties

Physical properties

Lithium is one of the alkali metals. Lithium is a silvery solid metal (when freshly cut). It is very soft. Thus it can be cut easily with a knife. It melts at a low temperature. It is very light, similar to wood. It is the least dense metal and the least dense element in a solid or liquid state. It can hold more heat than any other solid element. It conducts heat and electricity easily.

Chemical properties

It will react with water, giving off hydrogen to form a basic solution (lithium hydroxide). Because of this, lithium must be stored in petroleum jelly. Sodium and potassium can be stored in oil but lithium cannot because it is so light. It will just float on the oil and not be protected by it.

Lithium also reacts with halogens. It can react with nitrogen gas to make lithium nitride. It reacts with air to make a black tarnish and then a white powder of lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate.

Chemical compounds

Flame test for lithium

Lithium forms chemical compounds with only one oxidation state: +1. Most of them are white and unreactive. They make a bright red color when heated in a flame. They are a little toxic. Most of them dissolve in water. Lithium carbonate is less soluble in water than the other alkali metal carbonates like sodium carbonate.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Litium
አማርኛ: ሊቲየም
العربية: ليثيوم
aragonés: Litio
armãneashti: Lithiu
asturianu: Litiu
Avañe'ẽ: Litio
azərbaycanca: Litium
تۆرکجه: لیتیوم
বাংলা: লিথিয়াম
Bân-lâm-gú: Lithium
беларуская: Літый
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Літ
भोजपुरी: लिथियम
български: Литий
བོད་ཡིག: རྡོ་རྫས།
bosanski: Litij
brezhoneg: Litiom
català: Liti
Чӑвашла: Лити
Cebuano: Litio
čeština: Lithium
chiShona: Lithium
corsu: Litiu
Cymraeg: Lithiwm
dansk: Lithium
Deutsch: Lithium
eesti: Liitium
Ελληνικά: Λίθιο
English: Lithium
español: Litio
Esperanto: Litio
euskara: Litio
فارسی: لیتیم
Fiji Hindi: Lithium
føroyskt: Lithium
français: Lithium
Frysk: Litium
furlan: Liti
Gaeilge: Litiam
Gaelg: Litçhey
Gàidhlig: Litium
galego: Litio
贛語:
Gĩkũyũ: Lithium
ગુજરાતી: લિથિયમ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lithium
хальмг: Литион
한국어: 리튬
Hawaiʻi: Likiuma
հայերեն: Լիթիում
हिन्दी: लिथियम
hornjoserbsce: Litium
hrvatski: Litij
Ido: Litio
Bahasa Indonesia: Litium
interlingua: Lithium
íslenska: Litín
italiano: Litio
עברית: ליתיום
Basa Jawa: Litiyum
Kabɩyɛ: Lɩtɩyɔm
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲಿಥಿಯಮ್
ქართული: ლითიუმი
қазақша: Литий
Kiswahili: Lithi
коми: Литий
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lityòm
kurdî: Lîtyûm
Кыргызча: Литий
кырык мары: Литий
Latina: Lithium
latviešu: Litijs
Lëtzebuergesch: Lithium
lietuvių: Litis
Ligure: Littio
Limburgs: Lithium
lingála: Litu
Livvinkarjala: Litium
la .lojban.: roksodna
lumbaart: Litio
magyar: Lítium
македонски: Литиум
മലയാളം: ലിഥിയം
मराठी: लिथियम
Bahasa Melayu: Litium
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lī (gĭng-sṳ̆k)
монгол: Лити
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လီသီယမ်
Nederlands: Lithium (element)
नेपाली: लिथियम
नेपाल भाषा: लिथियम
日本語: リチウム
Nordfriisk: Liitsium
norsk: Litium
norsk nynorsk: Litium
occitan: Liti
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲିଥିୟମ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Litiy
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਿਥੀਅਮ
पालि: लिथियम
پنجابی: لیتھیم
Papiamentu: Lithium
ភាសាខ្មែរ: លីចូម
Piemontèis: Litio
Plattdüütsch: Lithium
polski: Lit
Ποντιακά: Λίθιον
português: Lítio
Ripoarisch: Lithium
română: Litiu
Runa Simi: Lityu
русский: Литий
саха тыла: Литиум
संस्कृतम्: लीथियम्
Scots: Lithium
Seeltersk: Lithium
shqip: Litiumi
සිංහල: ලිතියම්
slovenčina: Lítium
slovenščina: Litij
Soomaaliga: Liithiyaam
کوردی: لیتیۆم
српски / srpski: Литијум
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Litij
Basa Sunda: Litium
suomi: Litium
svenska: Litium
Tagalog: Lityo
татарча/tatarça: Литий
తెలుగు: లిథియం
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎵᏘᎥᎻ
Türkçe: Lityum
українська: Літій
اردو: لتھیم
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لىتىي
vepsän kel’: Litii
Tiếng Việt: Liti
walon: Litiom
文言:
Winaray: Lityo
吴语:
ייִדיש: ליטיום
Yorùbá: Lítíọ̀mù
粵語:
中文: