English: Linux

Tux the penguin
Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux[1]
Written inPrimarily C and assembly
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelMainly open source, proprietary software also available
Initial release1991; 28 years ago (1991)
Marketing targetPersonal computers, mobile devices, embedded devices, servers, mainframes, supercomputers
Available inMultilingual
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux kernel)
Default user interfaceMany
LicenseGPLv2[2] and other free and open-source licenses, except for the "Linux" trademark[a]

Linux or GNU/Linux is a Unix-like operating system (or strictly family of) for computers. An operating system is a collection of the basic instructions that manage the electronic parts of the computer allowing running application programs. Linux is free software, meaning everyone has the freedom to use it, see how it works, change it, or share it.

There is a lot of software for Linux and—like Linux itself—a lot of the software for Linux is free software. This is one reason why many people like to use Linux.

The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel,[4][5][6] an operating system kernel that Linus Torvalds developed, first alone.[7][8][9] Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short). Distributions also include supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project.

Popular Linux distributions[10][11][12] include Debian, Fedora, and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, and a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, and include a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose.

Linux was originally developed for personal computers. Linux is the leading operating system on servers such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on supercomputers[13] (at least on the TOP500 list, since November 2017). It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US.

Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system; this includes mobile phones (especially smartphones),[14] tablet computers, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions,[15][16] digital video recorders, video game consoles and smartwatches.[17] In fact, the Android operating system, a mobile operating system built on top of the Linux kernel, has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems.[18] In March 2017, it was reported that there were more users on Android than on Microsoft Windows, which is not based on Linux.[19]

Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.

How Linux was made

In the 1980s, many people liked to use an operating system called Unix. But because it restricted the user from sharing and improving the system, some people made a new operating system that would work like Unix but which anybody could share or improve. MINIX, similar to Unix, was used as a teaching tool for university students to learn how operating systems worked. MINIX also restricted its sharing and improvement by its users.

A group of people called the GNU Project wrote different parts of a new operating system called GNU, but it did not have all the parts an operating system needs to work. In 1991 Linus Torvalds began to work on a replacement for MINIX that would be free to use, and which would not cost anything. Linus started the project when he was attending the University of Helsinki.[20][21] This eventually became the Linux kernel.

Linus Torvalds shared the Linux kernel on some internet groups for MINIX users. Linus first called the operating system "Freax". The name Freax came from joining up the English words "free" and "freak", and adding an X to the name because Unix has an X in its name. Ari Lemmke, who worked with Linus at the University, was responsible for the servers that Freax was stored on. Ari did not think Freax was a good name, so he called the project "Linux" without asking Linus. Later, Linus agreed that Linux was a better name for his project.

Linux relied on software code from MINIX at first. But, with code from the GNU system available for free, he decided it would be good for Linux if it could use that code, instead of code from MINIX, because MINIX did not let people share or change it how they wanted. The GNU General Public License is a software license that lets people change any part of the code they want to, as long as they share any changes they make with the people they give their software to and allow them to redistribute it for free or for a price . The software from GNU was all licensed under the GNU General Public License, so Linus and the other people who worked on Linux could use it too.

To make the Linux kernel suitable for use with the code from the GNU Project, Linus Torvalds started a switch from his original license (which did not allow people to sell it) to the GNU GPL.[22] Linux and GNU developers worked together to integrate GNU code with Linux to make a free operating system.

Since 1991, thousands of programmers and companies have worked to make Linux better including Google.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Linux
Alemannisch: Linux
አማርኛ: ሊኑክስ
العربية: لينكس
aragonés: Linux
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܠܝܢܘܟܣ
অসমীয়া: লীনাক্স
asturianu: Linux
azərbaycanca: Linux
تۆرکجه: لینوکس
বাংলা: লিনাক্স
Bân-lâm-gú: Linux
Basa Banyumasan: Linux
башҡортса: Linux
беларуская: Linux
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Linux
български: Линукс
Boarisch: Linux
bosanski: Linux
brezhoneg: Linux
català: Linux
Cebuano: Linux
čeština: Linux
corsu: Linux
Cymraeg: Linux
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Deutsch: Linux
dolnoserbski: Linux
eesti: Linux
Ελληνικά: Linux
English: Linux
español: Linux
Esperanto: Linux
euskara: Linux
فارسی: لینوکس
français: Linux
Gaeilge: Linux
galego: Linux
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Linux
한국어: 리눅스
հայերեն: Լինուքս
Արեւմտահայերէն: Լինիւքս
हिन्दी: लिनक्स
hornjoserbsce: Linux
hrvatski: Linux
Ido: Linux
Bahasa Indonesia: Linux
interlingua: Linux
Ирон: Линукс
íslenska: Linux
italiano: Linux
עברית: לינוקס
Jawa: Linux
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲಿನಕ್ಸ್
ქართული: Linux
kaszëbsczi: Linux
қазақша: Linux
Kiswahili: Linux
коми: Линукс
Kreyòl ayisyen: Linux
kurdî: Linux
Кыргызча: Linux
Latina: Linux
latviešu: GNU/Linux
Lëtzebuergesch: Linux
lietuvių: Linux
Ligure: Linux
lingála: Linux
Lingua Franca Nova: Linux
la .lojban.: la .linuks.
lumbaart: Linux
magyar: Linux
македонски: Линукс
Malagasy: Linux
मराठी: लिनक्स
მარგალური: Linux
مصرى: لينكس
Bahasa Melayu: Linux
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Linux
монгол: Линукс
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လင်းနပ်စ်
Nederlands: Linux
Nedersaksies: Linux
नेपाली: लिनक्स
नेपाल भाषा: लाइनक्स
日本語: Linux
norsk nynorsk: Linux
occitan: Linux
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଲିନକ୍ସ
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲਿਨਅਕਸ
پنجابی: لینکس
ភាសាខ្មែរ: លីនុច
Plattdüütsch: Linux
polski: Linux
português: Linux
Qaraqalpaqsha: Linux
română: Linux
Runa Simi: Linux
русиньскый: Лінукс
русский: Linux
саха тыла: Linux
sardu: Linux
Scots: Linux
Seeltersk: Linux
shqip: Linux
sicilianu: Linux
සිංහල: ලිනක්ස්
سنڌي: لينڪس
slovenščina: Linux
ślůnski: Linux
Soomaaliga: Linux
کوردی: لینوکس
српски / srpski: Линукс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Linux
suomi: Linux
svenska: Linux
Tagalog: Linux
தமிழ்: லினக்சு
Taqbaylit: Linux
татарча/tatarça: Linux
తెలుగు: లినక్స్
tetun: Linux
Türkçe: Linux
удмурт: Linux
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Linux
українська: Linux
اردو: لینکس
Vahcuengh: Linux
vèneto: Linux
vepsän kel’: Linux
Tiếng Việt: Linux
Võro: Linux
walon: Linux
文言: 林納斯
West-Vlams: Linux
Winaray: Linux
Wolof: Linux
吴语: Linux
ייִדיש: לינוקס
Yorùbá: Linux
粵語: Linux
Zeêuws: Linux
žemaitėška: Linux
中文: Linux