Latin

Latin
Lingua latina
Rome Colosseum inscription 2.jpg
Latin inscription in the Colosseum
Native toLatium, Roman Monarchy, Roman Republic, Roman Empire, Medieval and Early modern Europe, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (as lingua franca), Vatican City
EthnicityLatins
EraVulgar Latin developed into Romance languages, 6th to 9th centuries. Latin was lingua franca of medieval Western Europe, and the liturgical language of the Roman Catholic Church.
Language family
Indo-European
  • Italic
    • Latino-Faliscan
      • Latin
Writing systemLatin alphabet 
Official status
Official language in Holy See
Regulated byIn ancient times, Roman schools of grammar and rhetoric.[1] Today, the Pontifical Academy for Latin.
Language codes
ISO 639-1la
ISO 639-2lat
ISO 639-3lat
Linguasphere51-AAB-a

Latin is an old language that was used in Ancient Rome. Short Latin texts are found from about the 5th century BC, and longer ones from about the 3rd century BC.

Classical Latin was used in the 1st century BC, and was the official language of the Roman Empire. It was widely used in the Western part of the Mediterranean. The languages known as Romance languages developed from the spoken version, called Vulgar Latin.

Even though no one speaks Latin as a first language any more, many people study it in school. It is still useful, because it shows how society worked in past times. It can also help understand how languages work. Knowing Latin makes it easier to learn the Romance languages.

Today Latin is still used in taxonomy to give scientific names to species and groups of species of living things. Some terms used in medicine to name parts of the body (such as bones) and diseases are also written in Latin.

Latin was very important to Christianity for many centuries. It is still spoken today during some religious activities. It is an official language in the Vatican, where the Pope leads the Roman Catholic Church. [2] People in the Vatican sometimes speak to each other in Latin (if they have different mother tongues). The mass of the Catholic Church may be done entirely in Latin. This is the Mass of the Roman Rite (Extraordinary Form).

Varieties

Lapis Niger is a stele from the 6th or 5th century BC. It bears one of the oldest known Latin inscriptions.

There were two types of Latin, Classical Latin and Vulgar Latin. Classical Latin was used by the educated Romans. It is the one used by the Roman Catholic Church and studied by students around the world. Vulgar Latin was the more common spoken variety used by the common Romans. It was the variety taught to the peoples conquered by the Romans.

Latin was the most important language in most of Europe in the Middle Ages. It was taught in many European schools, and all universities used Latin as the teaching language. Latin began to lose its importance in the Reformation, but it was still often used by authors of scientific books and encyclopedias. Until about 1900 many universities accepted dissertations written in Latin.

As people from other regions of Europe learned Vulgar Latin during Roman conquests, over time each region developed its own language, a simplified form of Latin. Those languages are called Romance languages, and they are still spoken today. The five Romance languages with the largest number of speakers are Spanish, French, Portuguese, Italian and Romanian. The Romance languages are very similar to each other, and speakers of one Romance language can understand many words and sentences (in both texts and spoken conversations) from another Romance language. For example, speakers of Portuguese can often understand Spanish. It can be said that the Romance languages are modern dialects of Latin.

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Латиныбзэ
Afrikaans: Latyn
Alemannisch: Lateinische Sprache
አማርኛ: ሮማይስጥ
Ænglisc: Lǣden
العربية: لغة لاتينية
aragonés: Latín
armãneashti: Latinica
arpetan: Latin
asturianu: Idioma llatín
Avañe'ẽ: Lasioñe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Latın dili
تۆرکجه: لاتین دیلی
bamanankan: Latin
Bân-lâm-gú: Latin-gí
башҡортса: Латин теле
беларуская: Лацінская мова
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Лацінская мова
भोजपुरी: लैटिन
Bikol Central: Tataramon na Latin
български: Латински език
Boarisch: Latein
བོད་ཡིག: ལ་ཏིན་སྐད།
bosanski: Latinski jezik
brezhoneg: Latin
буряад: Лата хэлэн
català: Llatí
Чӑвашла: Латин чĕлхи
Cebuano: Linatin
čeština: Latina
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Lengua Latin
Chi-Chewa: Chilatini
Cymraeg: Lladin
dansk: Latin
davvisámegiella: Láhtengiella
Deutsch: Latein
dolnoserbski: Łatyńšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Latèin
English: Latin
español: Latín
Esperanto: Latina lingvo
estremeñu: Luenga latina
euskara: Latin
Fiji Hindi: Latin
føroyskt: Latínskt mál
français: Latin
Frysk: Latyn
Gaeilge: An Laidin
Gaelg: Ladjyn
Gagauz: Latin dili
Gàidhlig: Laideann
贛語: 拉丁語
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Lâ-tên-ngî
хальмг: Латин келн
한국어: 라틴어
Հայերեն: Լատիներեն
हिन्दी: लातिन भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Łaćonšćina
hrvatski: Latinski jezik
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Latin
interlingua: Lingua latin
Interlingue: Latin
isiZulu: ILatin
íslenska: Latína
italiano: Lingua latina
עברית: לטינית
Basa Jawa: Basa Latin
kalaallisut: Latiinerisut
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಲ್ಯಾಟಿನ್
къарачай-малкъар: Латин тил
ქართული: ლათინური ენა
kaszëbsczi: Łacyńsczi jãzëk
қазақша: Латын тілі
kernowek: Latin
Kinyarwanda: Ikilatini
Kiswahili: Kilatini
Kongo: Kilatini
Kreyòl ayisyen: Laten
Кыргызча: Латын тили
кырык мары: Латин йӹлмӹ
Ladino: Latín
лезги: Латин чIал
لۊری شومالی: زۈن لاتين
latviešu: Latīņu valoda
Lëtzebuergesch: Latäin
lietuvių: Lotynų kalba
Limburgs: Latien
lingála: Latina
Livvinkarjala: Latinan kieli
lumbaart: Latin
magyar: Latin nyelv
македонски: Латински јазик
Malagasy: Fiteny latina
മലയാളം: ലാറ്റിൻ
მარგალური: ლათინური ნინა
مصرى: لاتينى
مازِرونی: لاتین
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Latin
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Lá-dĭng-ngṳ̄
Mirandés: Lhéngua lhatina
монгол: Латин хэл
မြန်မာဘာသာ: လက်တင်ဘာသာစကား
Nāhuatl: Latintlahtolli
Dorerin Naoero: Dorerin Latin
Nederlands: Latijn
Nedersaksies: Latien
नेपाली: रोमन भाषा
नेपाल भाषा: ल्याटिन भाषा
日本語: ラテン語
Napulitano: Lengua latina
нохчийн: Латинан мотт
Nordfriisk: Latiinsk
Norfuk / Pitkern: Leten
norsk: Latin
norsk nynorsk: Latin
Nouormand: Latîn
Novial: Latinum
occitan: Latin
олык марий: Латин йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Lotin tili
Pälzisch: Ladain
Pangasinan: Salitan Latino
پنجابی: لاطینی
Papiamentu: Latin
Patois: Latn
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ភាសាឡាតាំង
Picard: Latin
Piemontèis: Lenga latin-a
Tok Pisin: Tok Latin
Plattdüütsch: Latiensche Spraak
polski: Łacina
português: Latim
Qaraqalpaqsha: Latın tili
qırımtatarca: Latin tili
Ripoarisch: Latting
română: Limba latină
rumantsch: Latin
Runa Simi: Latin simi
русиньскый: Латиньскый язык
саха тыла: Латыын тыла
संस्कृतम्: लातिनी
Scots: Laitin
Seeltersk: Latiensk
sicilianu: Lingua latina
සිංහල: ලතින්
سنڌي: لاطيني
slovenčina: Latinčina
slovenščina: Latinščina
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Латиньскъ ѩꙁꙑкъ
ślůnski: Łaćina
Soomaaliga: Af-Laatiin
српски / srpski: Латински језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Latinski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Latin
suomi: Latina
svenska: Latin
Tagalog: Wikang Latin
தமிழ்: இலத்தீன்
Taqbaylit: Talatint
татарча/tatarça: Латин теле
తెలుగు: లాటిన్
Türkçe: Latince
Türkmençe: Latyn dili
тыва дыл: Латин дыл
удмурт: Латин кыл
українська: Латинська мова
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: لاتىن تىلى
vepsän kel’: Latinan kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Latinh
Volapük: Latänapük
walon: Latén
文言: 拉丁語
West-Vlams: Latyn
Winaray: Linatin
吴语: 拉丁文
ייִדיש: לאטיין
Yorùbá: Èdè Látìnì
粵語: 拉丁文
Zazaki: Latinki
Zeêuws: Latijn
žemaitėška: Luotīnu kalba
中文: 拉丁语
ГӀалгӀай: Латиний мотт
Lingua Franca Nova: Latina