Lake Baikal
English: Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal
Olkhon Island and Lake Baikal.jpg
Karte baikal2.png
Coordinates53°30′N 108°0′E / 53°30′N 108°0′E / Angara
Catchment area560,000 km2 (216,000 sq mi)
Basin countriesRussia and Mongolia
Max. length636 km (395 mi)
Max. width79 km (49 mi)
Surface area31,722 km2 (12,248 sq mi)[1]
Average depth744.4 m (2,442 ft)[1]
Max. depth1,642 m (5,387 ft)[1]
Water volume23,615.39 km3 (5,700 cu mi)[1]
Residence time330 years[2]
Shore length12,100 km (1,300 mi)
Surface elevation455.5 m (1,494 ft)
FrozenJanuary–May
Islands27 (Olkhon)
SettlementsIrkutsk
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.


Lake Baikal is a huge lake in Siberia, Russia. It is the biggest fresh water reservoir in the world. The lake is near Irkutsk.

Baikal is about 636 kilometres (395 mi) long. It is 20 to 80 kilometres (12 to 50 mi) wide. At its deepest point, it is 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) deep. With this depth it is the deepest lake on Earth.[3][4] The lake is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It holds about 20% of the world's unfrozen surface fresh water,[5]

The lake has fish that exist only here and nowhere else. It is home to more than 1,700 species of plants and animals, two-thirds of which can be found nowhere else in the world.[6]

Geology

The Yenisei River basin, which includes Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal fills an ancient rift valley, just as Lake Tanganyika does in East Africa.

At the Baikal Rift Zone, the Earth's crust pulls apart.[7] It is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m (5,387 ft). The bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m (3,893 ft) below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km (4.3 mi) of sediment. This means the rift floor is 8–11 km (5.0–6.8 mi) below the surface: the deepest continental rift on Earth.[7]

In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about two cm per year. The fault zone is also seismically active; there are hot springs in the area and notable earthquakes every few years.

Baikal's age is 25–30 million years: it is one of the oldest lakes. It is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, because its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. U.S. and Russian studies of core sediment in the 1990s gave a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 250,000 years. Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected soon. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which evidence of gas hydrates exists.[8][9][10]

The lake is completely surrounded by mountains. The Baikal Mountains on the north shore and the taiga are protected as a national park. It has 27 islands; the largest, Olkhon, is 72 km (45 mi) long and is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers.[5] It is drained through a single outlet, the Angara River.

Despite its great depth, the lake's waters are well-mixed and well-oxygenated throughout the water column, compared to the stratification that occurs in such bodies of water as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Baikalmeer
Alemannisch: Baikalsee
العربية: بحيرة بايكال
aragonés: Laco Baikal
অসমীয়া: বৈকাল হ্ৰদ
asturianu: Llagu Baikal
azərbaycanca: Baykal
تۆرکجه: بایکال گؤلو
Bân-lâm-gú: Baykal Ô͘
башҡортса: Байкал
беларуская: Байкал
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Байкал
भोजपुरी: बैकाल झील
български: Байкал
Boarisch: Baikalsee
brezhoneg: Lenn Baikal
буряад: Байгал
català: Baikal
Чӑвашла: Байкал
čeština: Bajkal
Cymraeg: Llyn Baikal
Deutsch: Baikalsee
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބައިކަލް ކުޅި
dolnoserbski: Bajkal
Ελληνικά: Βαϊκάλη
English: Lake Baikal
español: Lago Baikal
Esperanto: Bajkalo
euskara: Baikal
Fiji Hindi: Lake Baikal
føroyskt: Bajkalvatn
français: Lac Baïkal
Frysk: Baikalmar
Gaeilge: Loch Baikal
Gàidhlig: Loch Baikal
galego: Lago Baikal
한국어: 바이칼호
հայերեն: Բայկալ լիճ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Պայքալ Լիճ
हिन्दी: बयकाल झील
hornjoserbsce: Bajkal
Ido: Baikal
Ilokano: Danaw Baikal
Bahasa Indonesia: Danau Baikal
interlingua: Laco Baikal
Ирон: Байкал
íslenska: Bajkalvatn
italiano: Lago Bajkal
עברית: ימת באיקל
ქართული: ბაიკალი
қазақша: Байкөл
kernowek: Lydn Baikal
Kiswahili: Baikal
Кыргызча: Байкал көлү
кырык мары: Байкал
Latina: Lacus Baical
latviešu: Baikāls
лезги: Байкал
lietuvių: Baikalo ežeras
Lingua Franca Nova: Lago Baical
Livvinkarjala: Baikal
la .lojban.: baikal. zei lalxu
magyar: Bajkál-tó
македонски: Бајкалско Езеро
მარგალური: ბაიკალი
مازِرونی: بایکال
Bahasa Melayu: Tasik Baikal
Mirandés: Lago Baikal
мокшень: Байкал
монгол: Байгал нуур
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဘိုင်ကယ်အိုင်
Dorerin Naoero: Baykal
Nederlands: Baikalmeer
नेपाल भाषा: बैकाल पुखू
日本語: バイカル湖
нохчийн: Байкал
norsk nynorsk: Bajkalsjøen
occitan: Lac Baikal
олык марий: Байкал
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Baykal
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬਾਈਕਾਲ ਝੀਲ
پنجابی: جھیل بیکال
Piemontèis: Lagh Bajkal
polski: Bajkał
português: Lago Baikal
română: Lacul Baikal
Runa Simi: Paygal qucha
русиньскый: Байкал
русский: Байкал
саха тыла: Баай күөл
sicilianu: Lacu Baikal
slovenčina: Bajkalské jazero
slovenščina: Bajkalsko jezero
српски / srpski: Бајкалско језеро
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Bajkalsko jezero
svenska: Bajkalsjön
tarandíne: Laghe Bajkal
татарча/tatarça: Байкал
тоҷикӣ: Байкал
Türkçe: Baykal Gölü
Türkmençe: Baýkal
удмурт: Байкал
українська: Байкал
vèneto: Ƚago Baicàl
vepsän kel’: Baikal
Tiếng Việt: Hồ Baikal
Winaray: Danaw Baikal
吴语: 贝加尔湖
粵語: 貝加爾湖
žemaitėška: Baikals (ežers)
中文: 贝加尔湖